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ELECTRICAL SCIENCE ELECTRONICS TUTORIALS

What Does The Atomic Number Represent?

In this article, we will be looking at what an atomic number represent. But before we do that, we need to know what an atomic number is in the first place. Right? So we will start from there.

What Is An Atomic Number?

To answer this, we first need to know what an atom is. But luckily, we have already answered it. So if you go through my earlier article on what an atom is, you will see that it is made up of 3 things. They are:

  • Protons
  • Neutrons &
  • Electrons

Right? So then what is an atomic number?

Well, atomic number is the total number of Protons present in an atom. So as we know, protons are positively charged particles that are present in the nucleus of an atom. So if we count these protons, we will get the atomic number of that atom. It is as simple as that!

Sounds good? Great! But then what does an atomic number represent? Let us answer this in our next section.

What Does An Atomic Number Represent?

So if an atomic number is the total number of protons in an atom, how is it useful for us? What does it represent?

What Does An Atomic Number Represent?
What Does An Atomic Number Represent?

Well the thing is, an atomic number gives an atom it’s identity!

You see, all the elements in our universe are made up of atoms. And all these atoms have the same 3 things we listed earlier – Protons, Neutrons and Electrons.

So if that is the case, you may be wondering – How doe these elements differ then? In other words, if an electron in an element like Carbon is same as an electron in Oxygen, how is Carbon different from Oxygen? Why do we have these as two separate elements?

Can you take a guess? I want you to take a couple of minutes to think about this, before you look for the answer that I am writing next.

If you answered that it is because of the number of protons in it, then you are right! It is indeed the number of protons present in an atom that decides what type of element it is going to be!

So as an example, an atom with 3 protons in it will become lithium element. On the other hand, an atom with 4 protons will become beryllium.

So as you can see, as the number of protons change, the element’s identity also changes. Right?

That is why we told you earlier that an atomic number of an atom represents it’s identity!

It all now makes sense. Right?

Conclusion

So there you have it! An atomic number represents the identity of an atom. That is all there is to it. But if you have any questions around it, do let me know in the comments below. Because I will be more than happy to help! Alright?

So with this, I will end this article. See you until next time guys! ๐Ÿ™‚

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COMPUTER HARDWARE ELECTRICAL SCIENCE ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED HARDWARE PROGRAMMING TUTORIALS

Shift Register Modes, Use, Advantages & Disadvantages

So in this article, we will look at a piece of hardware called the shift register and their modes of operation. But we wont stop there. Because we will also look at their use case, advantages & disadvantages.

So if you are new to computer hardware or learning about what goes inside a microprocessor, then brace yourself. As this is going to be an eye opener for you on how computer works!

So are you ready? Great! Then let us go!

To start with, let us ask ourselves the basic question – What is a shift register? Because only when we know what it is, does it make sense to learn about shift register modes of operation. Right? Let us answer that first!

What Is A Shift Register?

A shift register is a piece of circuit that you will find inside a microprocessor. It is used to store and modify data. Now this is one of the simplest explanation I can give for a 2nd grade student.

But if you are some one who is studying about computers, this is just not sufficient. So I will have to explain it in a bit more detail. Alright? I will be getting a bit technical here. But it is how you will get a solid understanding of shift register. So you will have to bare it. Okay?

Technical Explanation

Technically, a shift register is made up of a bunch of Flip Flops. So as you know, a flip flop is a circuit that can store information. It can store data that is in one of the two states – 0 or 1. Right? So what happens when you connect a bunch of these flip flops together? You get a “register“.

So a register is a circuit made up of a bunch of flip flops that can store data having values in 0s or 1s. Now, if that is the definition of a register, then what is a shift register?

A shift register is a type of register where data is shifted from one flip flop to another within the register. But this shift of data does not happen by itself. Instead, it needs a clock signal to do so. So for every input clock cycle, the data get shifted from one flip flop to another. Hence the name “Shift Registers”. Aha! That name now makes so much sense. Right?

How Shift Register Works
How Shift Register Works

The above pic shows how it works. So as you can see here, for every clock cycle, a new input bit enters Bit0. But at the same time, existing Bit0 value shifts to Bit1, Bit1 to Bit2 and so on. But what happens to current value of Bit7? The register will just throw it out! Removed forever!

Now there is one thing for you to notice in the above pic. It is that the bit value here is shifting left. Right? Because of this, we call it a “Left Shift Register“.

But does that mean we also have a “Right Shift Register”? You bet! We do have a right shift register where input is fed to Bit7 & Bit0 will thrown out for every clock cycle!

Where Do We Use A Shift Register?

So now that we know how a Shift register works, let us see where we can use it.

Using Shift Register For Multiplication

When you shift bits in a byte to the left, the value of the byte is multiplied by 2! So we can use a left shift register whenever we want to multiply a byte by 2.

Using Shift Register For Division

When you shift a byte to the right, you are dividing it’s value by 2. So we can use a right shift register whenever we want to divide a byte by 2!

So with that, let us now look at the different modes of operation of a shift register.

Shift Register Modes Of Operation

A shift register will work in one these four modes:

  • Serial In Serial Out (SISO) Mode
  • Serial In Parallel Out (SIPO) Mode
  • Parallel In Serial Out (PISO) Mode
  • Parallel In Parallel Out (PIPO) Mode

So let us take a look at each of these modes one by one. Alright? Here we go!

Serial In Serial Out (SISO) Mode

In this mode of operation, the data is fed into the shift register serially for every clock cycle. That is, for every clock cycle, the data is shifted either to the right or left serially. The output is also taken out one bit at a time. So both inputs and outputs are serial here. Hence the name SISO. So then how does the Flip Flop connection look like? Take a look at it below:

SISO Mode Of Operation
Shift Register In SISO Mode Of Operation

Serial In Parallel Out (SIPO) Mode

When we use the shift register in SIPO mode, we feed the input data serially but take the output data out in parallel. But again, this happens at every clock cycle. So how does that look like? Take a look at it yourself!

SIPO Mode Of Operation
Shift Register In SIPO Mode Of Operation

So as you can see here, we are still feeding the input data serially. But the output is no more serial. We are taking all the output bits at the same time, in parallel. So what this means is that we will get full 4 bit output every clock cycle!

Parallel In Serial Out (PISO) Mode

In the case of shift register in PISO mode, we feed the input data in parallel but take the output data serially. So what this means is that we will be feeding multiple data bits as inputs for every clock cycle. But will be taking only one output bit for each clock cycle.

So then what will happen to the output of each flip flop? Well, even that will be fed as an input! So, we will be feeding two inputs after multiplexing them together. So how does that connection look like? Take a look at it below:

PISO Mode Of Operation
Shift Register In PISO Mode Of Operation

Parallel In Parallel Out (PIPO) Mode

And finally, we have the shift register working in PISO mode. So can you guess what in this mode? Yes. In this mode of operation, you have both input and output data running in parallel. So how does that work? Take a look at it first!

Shift Register In PIPO Mode Of Operation
Shift Register In PIPO Mode Of Operation

So as you can see above, there is a major change in the way we connect the flip flops. In that, you do not see them connected to each other at all. So each input bit goes to a flip flop and it’s output is directly taken out. The only connection that is common to all these flip flops are the clock and clear signal!

So there you have it. Those are the different modes in which we can design a shift register to work. In the next section let us take a look at different types of shift registers that we can use.

Types Of Shift Registers

Based on the way the data is shifted, we have 5 different types of shift registers. They are:

  • Left Shift Registers
  • Right Shift Registers
  • Bidirectional Shift Registers
  • Circular Shift Registers &
  • Linear Feedback Shift Registers

Now let explain what each of these registers work like:

Left Shift Registers

We have already talked about the left shift register. So I think you are familiar with it by now. If not, let me re-iterate. So in the case of a left shift register, the data is shifted to the left on each clock cycle.

Right Shift Registers

This is just like the left shift register. But here it is shifting the data to the right on each clock cycle.

Bidirectional Shift Registers

In the case of a bidirectional shift register, we can shift the data in both the directions. So you can shift the data either to it’s left or right!

Circular Shift Registers

In the case of a circular shift register, the last output is connected back as input. So your data will not be thrown out. Instead, will be shifted either left or right in a circular fashion!

Linear Feedback Shift Registers

In this type of shift register, the input of one flip flop will be linear output value of the previous flip flop.

Advantages & Disadvantages Of A Shift Register

It is now time to talk about the advantages & disadvantages of using a shift register. So what are they?

Advantages Of A Shift Register

  • They are very fast to use.
  • Very quick when you want to convert data from serial to parallel or vice versa. They are faster than normal serial to parallel converter circuits.
  • They are very simple in design. So you can easily rig up a circuit to create a shift register.
  • We can use them to encrypt or decrypt the data.
  • We can use them to a delay signal.
  • It is used in CDMA to generate Pseudo Noise Sequence Number.
  • We can use them to track our data!

Disadvantages Of A Shift Register

While we could see that it has major advantages, shift register has one major disadvantage. That is:

  • The strength of the output current coming from a shift register is not so strong!

So there you have it. Those where some of the advantages & disadvantages of using a shift register.

And with that, I will end this article now. But if you have any doubts, do let me know. Because I will be more than happy to answer them! Alright? So see you and take care until next time! ๐Ÿ™‚

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ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED HARDWARE PROGRAMMING TUTORIALS

What Are Hexadecimal Numbers & Why Do We Use It?

So in this article, we will take a look at what Hexadecimal numbers are. But we wont stop just there. We will also learn why we need to use them. We will take a look at few examples of hexadecimal numbers to know it better.

So does that sound like something you want to know more about? Great! Then strap yourself to your seat and read along. Because you are in for a treat with a world of numbers!

So first thing first, let us answer the basic question we have.

What Are Hexadecimal Numbers?

So to answer this, we first need to ask ourselves what a decimal number is. Alright? Because the numbers we use in our daily lives are based on decimal number system. So looking at hexadecimal numbers after analyzing decimal number will be so much easier. Right?

Alright then.

Decimal numbers

They are the number system that has the digits 0 to 9. Right? But what do we do when we want to go beyond the number 9?

What Are Hexadecimal Numbers?
What Are Hexadecimal Numbers?

We use 2 digits to represent the next number. And these digits will now start with a 1 followed by another digit between 0 to 9.

So the next set of numbers will be 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 …… Correct? But what happens when we reach the number 19? We again start with our next number 2 and repeat the process again.

So it will now be 20, 21, 22, 23 ….

So what we see here is that we can only use digits between 0 to 9. But they can be grouped together in to multiple digits to count any number we want. Right?

Alright. I can now hear you asking me what does this have to do with Hexadecimal number?

Well this concept is very much related to hexadecimal numbers as well. How, you ask? Let me explain!

Hexadecimal Numbers

So just like we have digits between 0 to 9 for decimal, we use digits between 0 to F in hexadecimal system!

What? So how does the digits look like? They look like below:

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E & F

These are the digits we use in a hexadecimal number system!

So as you can see, the numbers between 0 & 9 are the same as decimal system. However after that, 10 is represented by A. 11 by B, 12 by C and so on. This goes on until the letter F which is used to represent the number 15.

So in hexadecimal system, we have symbols to count from 0 to 15!

Why Do We Use Hexadecimal System?

Now that we know what hexadecimal system is, let us learn why we need it.

If you take a look at a computer, we know that it works in binary right? So the only numbers it can understand is 1s & 0s. Because of this, a large number like 10 is represented in binary as 1010b right?

But as you can see, it is not so readable. Correct? So there is a very good chance that we can read or write a binary number wrong! So to avoid that, we use hexadecimal numbers when working with computers!

Hexadecimal Number Examples

Decimal NumberHexadecimal Number
1000x64
120xC
2120xD4

Example Of Hexadecimal Numbers

So you can see few examples of hexadecimal numbers in the above table. Right? But did you notice something? We have prefixed hexadecimal numbers with “0x”. Why? Because that is a convention that will tell anyone to treat it as a hexadecimal number!

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ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED TUTORIALS

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) & How Does It Work?

So in this article, we will take a look at what a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is. But we will not stop just at that. Because we will also learn how an LDR works.

Now if you are some one who is getting into electronics, this will be very helpful for you. But if you are someone who has already worked with electronics, this will still be helpful to read. Why? Because we will be going through this sensor step by step. In detail.

So give yourself some time to read it all. Because this will get you to know everything there is to know about LDR. Alright? Cool, then let us get started!

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) Sensor?

To answer this, we must first take a look at what a sensor is and what it does. Because only when we know why we use them in general, can we look at LDR in particular. Does that make sense? Great! So let us start with that.

What is a sensor?

A sensor is a device that we use in our electronics to measure a physical quantity. But why do we need to use these sensors? Because they can sense any change in these physical quantity and convert it into electrical signal.

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor
What Is A Light Dependent Resistor

Wait, that was quite a mouthful to read. Right? But what does it really mean?

So to put it in simple words, a sensor is a type of device that can convert a physical quantity to an electrical signal. It is as simple as that!

Okay. Now that makes sense. But why do we need them in our circuits?

Why do we use sensors?

So here is why we need them – Just think about some sensual thing you can feel. Can you tell me some of them that you feel on a daily basis? Yes, there are these things like smell, sound, weather etc. that our body can feel, right? But what if we wanted our electronics to sense that too? How can we make that happen?

So that is when these sensors will come into picture!

We can use sensors for smell, sound etc. And one such sensor is the Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) sensor! But what does an LDR sensor do?

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor and What Does It Do?

A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is a sensor whose resistance will change with the changing temperature. It is as simple as that!

So how does this LDR work? What is it made up of? Let us answer these queries now.

How Does A Light Dependent Resistor Work?

A light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is made of those materials which has these unique properties – In darkness, these materials do not conduct electricity but will do so when there is light falling on them!

So as a result, you can say that they have high resistance when it is dark but have low resistance when light falls on them!

Alright! So that is the principle behind the working of an LDR. But then this begs us to ask our next question:

What is the range of resistance of an LDR?

So as you know by now, the resistance of an LDR changes between darkness & when in light. But what is this range? How much of a resistance change is happening here?

So the answer is, it fluctuates between 100 Ohms to 1M Ohm!

So that is quite a big change, isn’t it? And that is why we can use this sensor for increasing or decreasing the flow of current to a circuit based on light!

So there you go! That is all there is for you to know about a Light Dependent Resistor. But if you have any more questions about it, do let me know in the comments below. I will be more than happy to help!

With that being said, I will end this article now! I hope you have a great day! ๐Ÿ™‚

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ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED TUTORIALS

PT100 Temperature Sensor Table & How To Use It

In this article, we will be taking a look at the PT100 Temperature Sensor Table. So using this table, we can see how the resistance of PT100 changes with temperature.

But before we do that, we first need to know what a PT100 temperature sensor is and how it works. Right? Because having a clear idea about what this sensor is will help us know how to use it. Does that make sense? Great! Then let us start from there!

What Is PT100 Temperature Sensor?

PT100 temperature sensor is a sensor that that is made from Platinum. But what does it do? Well, we can use PT100 sensor to measure the temperature around it. So in a way, it can act like a thermometer!

Wait a second. How does a sensor made of Platinum work as a thermometer?

How does it work?

So here is the thing. A pure metal like platinum has a unique feature in that it’s resistance increases with an increase in temperature. So by just measuring the resistance across it, we can map it to it’s corresponding temperature!

Now that sounds great right? Because now just my checking the resistance of this sensor, we can tell what the temperature is. How cool is that!

But why does the Platinum behave this way? What makes it change its resistance based on the temperature?

Well, to answer this question, we need to know a little bit of the chemical structure of Platinum.

First thing first, we need to know that Platinum is a pure metal. Because of this, an electric current can flow easily through it. Alright?

So everything should work fine when you are passing current through it then, right? Well, not really!

Why? Because this free flow of electrons in Platinum is affected by the temperature around it.

You see, a metal like Platinum is made up of crystals. And these crystals starts vibrating as the temperature increases. So this increase in vibration in turn will slow down the flow of electrons!

So there you have it! This is the reason why Platinum will conduct less current as temperature increases.

So PT100 temperature sensor that is built using Platinum will take advantage of this feature. And hence, we can use it to measure resistance across it to determine the temperature!

Now that is a very nifty way to take advantage of this feature right? I mean you are measuring temperature around you by just checking resistance of a sensor. How cool is that!

So now that we know how a PT100 temperature sensor works, it is time for us to look at the PT100 Temperature Sensor Table.

What Is A PT100 Temperature Sensor Table

So as we learnt, PT100 temperature sensor’s resistance increases with increase in temperature. Right? So just by measuring the resistance across it, we can tell what the temperature around it is. Right?

But what is the formula we need to use to convert a resistance to temperature? That is when the temperature sensor table comes in handy!

So simply put, this PT100 temperature sensor table will help us map between a resistance value and it’s respective temperature. No formula required then! That is great right.

So how does this PT100 temperature sensor table look like then? Well, take a look at it for yourself:

Temperature (In Degree Celsius)Resistance (In Ohms)
-20018.52
-10060.26
0100
100138.5
200175.85
300212.05
400247.10
500281
600313.72
700345.29
800375.71
850390.49
PT100 Temperature Sensor Table

So as you can see, there is a simple mapping between the temperature and resistance. You can then use this table as a reference to measure the current temperature across a PT100 sensor.

But before we go, did you notice one important thing in the PT100 Temperature Sensor Table? Can you spot it?

PT100 Temperature Sensor Table
PT100 Temperature Sensor Table Image File

So if you did find that the resistance is at 100 Ohms when the temperature is at zero degree Celsius, then yes! You got hat right!

Now that is an important feature of the Pt100 temperature sensor. So its resistance is always at 100 Ohms when it is working at a temperature of 0 degree centigrade. It is a good thing to keep that in mind when working with this sensor!

Conclusion

So there you have it. Because that is all there is for you to know about PT100 sensor.

But if you still have any questions about it, do let me know in the comment section below and I will be happy to help!

So with that, I will end this article now. Have a great day you all! ๐Ÿ™‚

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ELECTRONICS TUTORIALS

What Is Leakage Current? How To Stop It?

So if you have been reading about electrical equipment, you might have come across the term “leakage current”. But what is this leakage current? Do you know how it is caused and what steps you can take to prevent it? If you are not sure, do not worry! Because we will be answering these questions here in this article.

But before we do that, let us just start with learning about a few basic things. Alright? Because without an idea about these, it will be difficult for us to get our head around what leakage current is. Okay? Does that make sense? Great! So then here we go!

If you take a look at any electrical equipment, you will find a few important components in it. So this is irrespective of what this device is or what it does. It will for sure have these components in them. So what we are talking about are those generic components that you will for sure see in any electrical equipment. Now what are they?

What Is  A leakage Current?

Any electrical equipment will have a power supply, electrodes, conductors & insulators in them.

Learn what is the difference between conductors & insulators

Wait a second, an electrical equipment having conductors is fine. But why do we need insulators? Can you take a guess?

We use insulators in those areas where we do not want electric current to flow through! Now where will that be? It is usually those areas where the user would touch the equipment, right? But not just that, equipment uses insulators even inside the circuitry where we do not want current to flow.

Alright, very well. But what has that got to do with the leakage of current? Well, there is a strong connection between them. Let me explain it to you!

What Is Leakage Current?

So what does a leakage current got to do with insulator? Well, one of the main reason we use insulator is to prevent current from flowing through it right? But the thing is, even a strong insulator can let some amount of current to flow through it.

And this is only going to increase with an increase in voltage. Also, there comes a point in voltage called the breakdown voltage where an insulator will lose all it’s properties and just allow current to flow through it.

Now this type of current flow is not happening by design, right? It is something that we do not want. But still happening. So you can say that this is non functional current. Or just unwanted current in simple words. This is what is called a leakage current.

So in other words, we can define leakage current as:

Any current that is not flowing by the design and non functional is called a leakage current

So this is what a leakage current is in terms of an electrical equipment. But is that all there is to it? I mean does it happen only due to insulator breakdown? Well actually NO!

Why Does It Happen?

It can happen due to any of the following reasons:

  • Break down of insulator properties due to break down voltage.
  • Breakdown of capacitors in trying to block DC current. This happens due to an impure dielectric material used in a capacitor. As a result, some amount of DC current will continue to flow even after power is removed from the device.
  • Reverse leakage current in a diode due to semiconductor impurities.

How Can we Prevent It?

Now that we know what a leakage current is and why it occurs, it is time to see how we can prevent it. So what are the best ways we can avoid it? Well, the simple and easiest thing to do is to detect the deterioration of the components that causes it.

So what does that mean? It means to detect any leakage current happening and replacing the parts that are causing it. But then we have this next question. How can we detect it? Is there an easy way to do it? Can anyone do it?

And the answer for this is, YES! There is an easy way to detect leakage current. How? By using a leakage current detector!

What Is A Leakage Current Detector?

A leakage current detector is a device that we can use to see if there is any leakage current in a device. So you can say that it is a type of leakage current tester.

Now there are many types of leakage current testers out there. So it needs its own article which I will be writing soon. But just know that using these leakage current testers, we can find any leakages and then fix it!

Sometimes these testers are also called as Megger.

Why Should We Prevent A Current Leakage?

Now that we know how we can detect the leakage of current we should ask ourselves why we do want to prevent it?

Well the are many reasons why we want to prevent it from happening. But here are some of the important reasons for it:

  • A leakage current can be dangers as it can get you electrocuted!
  • In a handheld device running on battery, leakage current can drain your battery quickly.
  • Any leakage current is just wasted current. This is just waste of resources.
  • Leakage current can result in device heating up quickly & frequently.

So there you have it. A brief introduction of what it is, why it is caused and how you can prevent it. With this, I will end this article here and continue on this topic in a future article again. But in the mean time if you have any questions, do let me know in the comment below!

So until next time, have a great day! ๐Ÿ™‚

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Google Chrome Alternative For Android In 2020

If you are looking for a Google Chrome alternative web browser for Android, then look no further! Because in this article, we will take a look at Samsung Internet! It is one of the best web browser for Android in 2020.

But before we do that let us ask ourselves a few basic questions first. Alright?

Why Google Chrome Alternative?

Most of us are happy with the default Google Chrome browser that comes on Android smartphones these days. But for some, it just does not cut it. Why? Because Google Chrome is a memory hungry application and its up a lot of RAM.

But why is that the case?

Why does Google Chrome need a lot of memory?

The reason why Google Chrome need a lot of RAM is because it views each tab as a separate process in the OS. So by doing so, even if one of the website in the browser tab crashes, its fine. It does not crash the entire Google Chrome browser app itself!

So to achieve this capability, it needs to run each tab as a separate process in the OS. But as a side-effect of this, it needs a lot of RAM!

But Why Wanting A Lot Of RAM Is A Problem?

It becomes a problem because your smartphone runs many apps simultaneously. So all these apps will be fighting to get as much memory as possible. And since the amount of RAM in a smartphone is fixed, it can cause problems.

So if you have noticed a message like “App is not responding” when you are using your Android phone, this is the reason!

Okay, now that we know the problem of shortage of memory, how do we fix it?

Samsung Internet - The Google Chrome Alternative Web Browser
Samsung Internet – The Google Chrome Alternative Web Browser

So if you are using a smartphone with small amount of RAM like say 1GB or 2GB, then you may have this problem. But there is a simple solution tot his problem as well.

You just need to find an alternative browser to Google Chrome in that case!

Which Is The Best Google Chrome Alternative For Android In 2020?

The answer is – Samsung Internet browser!

Samsung Internet is hands-down the best alternative to Google Chrome we have seen so far! Why is that so? We will tell you the reason below!

What is Samsung Internet?

Samsung Internet is a free, built-in web browser that offers users a simple, private and secure Internet experience. So you can use it for all you web browsing needs without any problem. Be it banking, browsing the web or playing videos, it can handle them all.

Where can I download Samsung Internet?

Downloading this browser is quite easy. If you are on Android, Samsung Internet is available on the Google Play Store. So you can download it from there.

Can I install Samsung Internet on an iPhone?

No, you cannot use it on an iPhone because it is not available on the Apple store.

What rendering engine does Samsung Internet use?

Samsung Internet is based on Chromium, the open source web browser engine. Because of this, Samsung Internet uses the same rendering engine as Chrome.

Is Samsung Internet better than Google Chrome?

Samsung Internet is better than Google Chrome in may fronts – Because it has a faster start-up speed and a more intuitive user interface, it is quite slick to use!

Which is the best web browser for Android?

However, having said that – Google Chrome is still the best web browser for Android. It is the most popular browser on Android, with over 1 billion users worldwide.

Why should I use Samsung Internet over Google Chrome on Android?

While Google Chrome is the most popular web browser for Android, there are issues with it. Because some of the smartphones cannot handle Google Chrome properly and freezes frequently. So for those who are suffering this issue, we think that Samsung Internet is a better alternative for them.

Why is Samsung Internet a better Google Chrome alternative?

Samsung Internet is one of the best web browser for Android. It is the default browser for Galaxy smartphones. Samsung Internet is designed for the best mobile web experience.

How is Samsung Internet on Android better?

Samsung Internet is the default browser on Samsung Galaxy smartphones, and it is a lightweight browser with powerful features. It is also one of the best browsers on Android, because it has good speed, a good user experience, and supports WebVR as well!

Can I use Samsung Internet on any Android phone?

Yes, you can! Since Samsung Internet is available on the Google Playstore so you can download and install it on any compatible Android smartphone.

Conclusion

So there you have it. Those were some of the reasons why we think Samsung Internet is the best alternative to google Chrome on Android in 2020. But if you have any more questions on it, do let us know in the comments below. We will be more than happy to help!

So until next time, have a great day! ๐Ÿ™‚

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COMPUTER HARDWARE ELECTRONICS REVIEWS SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

Asus ROG Phone 3 Review & Specification

The Asus ROG Phone 3 is the third and latest iteration of the ROG Phone series of gaming smartphones from Asus. It is an upgrade over the ROG Phone 2, and is geared toward serious gamers.

Why are we reviewing the Asus ROG Phone 3?

The ROG Phone 3 features a very high-end processor, along with a large display and a lot of RAM. It also features a very unique design that differentiates itself from other gaming smartphones on the market.

The Asus ROG Phone 3 has a lot going on in the spec sheet. So We’re going to take it in bits and pieces to get through it all. Sounds good? Great! Then let us begin the review!

Asus ROG Phone 3 Feature Review

What is the physical size of ROG Phone 3?

The ROG Phone is an Android smartphone that is 9.9mm thick and weighs 240g, which is pretty hefty for a phone with a 6.5-inch display. This gives the device a screen-to-body ratio of just above 78.2%, which is on the lower side of the spectrum, but not that bad.

Asus ROG Phone 3 Review
Asus ROG Phone 3 Review

When it comes to it’s dimensions, the ROG Phone measures at 171.0 x 78.0 x 9.9mm, which is not too big, not too small. It has a rather unique design, which resembles the new HTC U12+ and even the Razer Phone 2. But most importantly, it is comfortable to hold in our hand and easy to use!

What kind of display does this phone use?

The Asus ROG Phone 3 features a 6.59-inch AMOLED display with a resolution of 1080 x 2340 pixels and an aspect ratio of 19.5:9. But talking about the display PPI, it also has a pixel density of 391 pixels-per-inch.

While the ROG Phone 3 has a 19.5:9 aspect ratio, the AMOLED display itself is curved on all four sides, and has an overall screen-to-body ratio of 79.9%.

It also comes with HDR10+ support, which should be good enough for most. However, one missing feature is that it doesn’t support Adaptive-Sync. But it can display up to 90% of the DCI-P3 color gamut.

Additionally, the display has a refresh rate of 144Hz, which is extremely high, so the animation is smooth and there’s no lag whatsoever.

How Good Is ROG Phone 3 For Gaming?

If you’re into gaming, then you will really appreciate the added refresh rate. The high refresh rate will give gamers an edge over their competitors as there will be no lag and input lag is less noticeable.It is also a low-persistence panel, which helps cut down on ghosting when moving between frames.

What is Ghosting?
Ghosting is a phenomenon that occurs when the display does not completely refresh, causing a moving image to leave a faint, lingering image behind.
It is caused by slow response time, and can occur in CRT monitors, plasma displays, and LCDs.

It also means there will be no screen tearing.

What is screen tearing?
Screen tearing is a graphical issue in video display systems in which a display device shows information from multiple frames in a single screen draw. It occurs when the graphics chip and the display screen cannot sync up with their display refresh rates, causing parts of two or more different frames to be shown on the screen at the same time.

There’s a special technology that also helps improve the experience. The display is also protected by Corning Gorilla Glass 6. Asus claims that it is one of the brightest displays at 650 nits. The company also mentions that it has a 10,000:1 contrast ratio.

Which processor does the Asus ROG Phone 3 use?

The new Asus ROG Phone 3 uses the Qualcomm Snapdragon 865+ chipset, the latest from Qualcomm and the successor to the Snapdragon 845.

This gaming smartphone may not be the worldโ€™s first to be powered by the Snapdragon 865+ chipset, but it has the fastest clock speed of 1.9 GHz on a 7 nm process.

So let us talk about what is inside this processor now, alright?

To begin with, the SoC comes with a new set of Kryo 585 cores and an Adreno 650 graphics unit. It’s an octa-core chipset with one 3.1 GHz Kryo 585 Gold CPU and three 2.42 GHz Kryo 585 Silver CPUs, plus a four 1.8 GHz Kryo 585 CPU.

But it doesn’t just end there! Because the Snapdragon 865+ is also an SoC that comes with a separate core to handle the artificial intelligence (AI) workload. In addition to that, we can also see tht comes with a new NPU for faster AI performance.

Since there’s a good amount of RAM and the ROG Phone 3 should be able to handle pretty much anything you throw at it, although it does get warm when you push it to the limit!

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

But the real juice for this smartphone which is designed specfically for gaming, lies in it’s graphic power. So naturally, you will be looking for what that looks like, Right? So here we go!

The ROG Phone 3 has an Adreno 650 GPU built into it. So what does that mean? It means that it is having better graphics that is also capable of HDR gaming! This makes the ROG Phone 3 a solid choice for mobile gamers.

But having said that, let us now talk on the software side!

This smartphone runs the latest version of Android 10 with the ROG UI on top of it.

But how does this perform?

Well, for one we found it to be incredibly powerful and the ROG UI offers so much customization that it’s a bit overwhelming. But also the gaming-focused interface is really slick and very fast!

But what about the storage?

So Yeah! I can hear you screaming in my ears asking this question. How does the memory part of this smartphone looks like.

Since this is a smartphone designed for gaming, you want it to have good memory space right? Well, we are happy to say that this smartphone doesn’t dissapoint you in that area! Because here is how it looks like:

Asus ROG Phone 3 has a memory of 128 GB of internal storage with 12 GB of RAM, 256 GB with 12 GB RAM, 512 GB with 12 GB RAM, and 512 GB with 16 GB RAM.

The flash storage is based on the latest storage technology – UFS 3.1. Asus has chosen to go with 128GB of internal storage as it’s base class and has not opted for the microSD card expansion slot. A trend that we are seeing in more and more phones these days for better or worse!

Let us talk about Camera!

If there is one thing that delights non gamers about this phone for sure, it has to be the camera!

But why? Because I see that this smartphone comes with a myriad of sensors that will work for every occassion! Hmm…not sure what I mean? Well take a look at it’s specs for yourself then!

The ROG Phone comes with a triple-camera setup on the back. The primary one is the 64-megapixel sensor while the secondary one is a 13-megapixel sensor with a 125-degree field of view and a gyro-EIS module. Finally the third one is a 5-megapixel depth sensor.

But it doesn’t end there. Because this triple camera setup comes with a dual-LED flash as well.

Front Camera

On the front side, the ROG Phone also comes with a 24-megapixel selfie camera. This selfie camera on the Asus ROG Phone 3 comes with a 1/2.6″ sensor, an f/2.0 aperture and an 84-degree field of view.

The camera software is also customized by Asus, with features like Anti-shake, AIS and AR effects. So this will ensure that you will never have a bad time taking amazing selfies! Now that is cool, right?!

Hello boss! But what about the video?

Surprisingly, this smartphone does a great job on the video recording front as well!

The main camera can shoot video at 8k resolution at 30fps and 4K resolution, at 60fps. You also have the option to record at 4K resolution, at 120fps, which can be used to create slow-motion videos. You can record 1080p videos at 30fps, as well as 720p ones at 480fps.

But how good is the sound quality on Asus ROG Phone 3?

Asus has focused on the audio capabilities of the ROG Phone 3 really well! So let us take a look at it in detail:

3.5 mm Audio Jack

First up, the 3.5mm headphone jack. I’m glad it’s there. There are still a lot of games and other content that comes out in analog format and I appreciate being able to use my wired headphones when I want.

The earphones bundled with the smartphone are equipped with great amplifiers, which boost the audio signal from the smartphone. Itโ€™s a unique solution that could be particularly interesting in a home theater context.

Next, A 24-bit/192kHz audio output is a first for this smartphone. Itโ€™s a direct consequence of the DTS:X support in the loudspeaker. DTS:X is an extension of DTS which is able to send different audio tracks to each speaker, creating an immersive audio experience. So for an audiophile like me, this is niravana!

Speakers

But the other feature important for me is the speakers. Because there are times when you don’t feel like plugging in an earphone and block your ears completely. Right? So how does the ROG Phone 3 fare in this front? Here is my experience:

Luckily, the front-facing stereo speakers produce some of the loudest and most dynamic audio weโ€™ve ever heard from a phone. The surround sound-like effects that come from having two speakers makes gaming and watching movies an unforgettable experience.

But there is more! The external speakers are also good for hands-free calls. The bundled ROG Audio Wizard app allows users to fine-tune the audio settings to their liking.

So all in all, I feel this phone is perfect for gamers and audio buffs alike.

How About Wireless Connectivity

Next, we have the rest of the phones communication bits. You’ll get the normal Wifi, Bluetooth, GPS, NFC, and the FM radio. For the Wi-Fi, Asus is using the latest 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac with 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands.

It also has Wi-Fi Direct and Hotspot functionality. This means that you should have no trouble connecting to a network and using the internet on the go.

Okay! That is all good. But what can I do if I want to connect it to my car? I need to use other wireless connection then, right? So how do I go about doing that? Well that is when I use my Bluetooth!

Bluetooth

The ROG Phone 3 features Bluetooth 5.1. Now this version of Bluetooth has a higher bandwidth than the previous versions, which makes it perfect for watching videos, using wireless headphones, and transferring data. It is also backwards compatible with previous versions of Bluetooth, so you can use it with all of your devices.

Bluetooth is no longer limited to file transfer and can be used for wireless speakers, headsets, keyboards, mice, and more. It is also the new AptX standard, which is supposed to give a better quality of sound over Bluetooth.

Okay! But what about my mobile payments? What can I do to look cool paying money from my smartphone? Like that Apple fanboy standing in front of me flaunting his iPhone to pay the bill?

Near Field Communication (NFC)

There is NFC connectivity on the ROG Phone 3 as well. So you can use NFC pay as well!

But it does not end there. Because NFC is great for sharing data between phones and sharing links with people that donโ€™t have data on their phones as well. But if you want to transfer a lot of data, you can do so with a cable.

Radio

Moving on to the radios, we have a few that have been announced and some that haven’t. First up, is the aforementioned FM radio. This will be available in the US. It will also support GPS with GPS, GLONASS, and QZSS for Russia. This allows you to find your location, and navigation is also possible with the GPS.

Then we have BeiDou Navigation Satellite System or BDS. This is the Chinese satellite system that is slowly being adopted by more and more countries. Then we have GALILEO, which is the European system that has been adopted by more countries as well. The last one is QZSS. QZSS is the Japanese satellite system that is also slowly being adopted by more and more countries.

The Good Old USB

Finally, we have the ports. The right side has the a USB 3.1 Type-C port. This is just like the OnePlus 6T and Razer Phone 2, but it is backwards compatible with 3.0. USB-C is great because it is reversible, and it is becoming the standard for charging phones. Youโ€™ll also get an adapter for USB-C to USB-A and USB-C to HDMI. This is also the way to charge the phone. At the bottom is another USB port but this time it is USB 2.0.

What About Sensors in ROG Phone 3?

The ROG Phone 3 has a unique solution to a very common problem in modern smartphones. The ROG Phone 3 offers fingerprint scanning technology embedded directly into the display. The process works like this: the user places their finger on the screen and the smartphone then flashes an image of the user’s fingerprint, which the phone’s built-in scanner then uses to identify the user and unlock the device. In addition to this, it has the standard array of sensors such as accelerometer, gyroscope, proximity sensor and compass.

How Good Is The Battery On This Phone?

The Asus ROG Phone 3 battery at 6000mAh is the largest capacity battery in our list of best gaming phones. This helps the ROG Phone 3 to rank high in all three of our battery tests, coming in at number two in our web browsing test, number three in our video test and number four in our talk time test. While the Asus ROG Phone 3 has a massive battery, the phone is not designed to be charged wirelessly, which is disappointing considering it is one of the few features that you might have expected on a gaming phone. This does mean that the ROG Phone 3 does support Quick Charge 4.0 and USB Type-C, so you can expect to see this phone charge fast when you use the right cable.

Network Support

The Asus ROG Phone is an odd beast – a gaming phone with 5G connectivity in tow, even if it is just for show right now. The 5G version has support for the full set of sub-6GHz 5G bands, as well as a wide range of LTE bands – though some of them are not available in the US. It has a Cat.20 LTE modem, which theoretically offers speeds up to 2000Mbps downlink and 150Mbps uplink. It also supports 5G NR on its newest 5G bands, with the B version having 5G NR on bands 34 and 39 and SA support.

Conclusion

All in all, we feel that this is a great smartphone for gamers and audiophiles alike! So if you fall into any of these two categories, you should definitely check this smartphone out!

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ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED TUTORIALS

Difference Between UFS 2.1 & UFS 3 – Explained

Before we take a look at the difference between UFS 2.1 & UFS 3, let us do this first. Let us first understand what UFS is, where did it come from & how is it useful. Because once we get some background, we will be able to appreciate UFS better. That makes sense. Right?

We will start asking ourselves some questions and try to answer them as we go. So by doing so, we will get a clear picture of UFS. We will know everything there is to know about UFS. Only then we will be able to tell the difference between UFS 2.1 & UFS 3. So here we go!

UFS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

What does UFS stand for?

Difference between UFS 2.1 and UFS 3

UFS stands for Universal Flash Storage, which is a standard for removable flash memory cards. It was created by the JEDEC Solid State Technology Association and published in August 2011.

What is UFS 2.1 flash memory?

UFS 2.1 flash memory is the latest standard of Universal Flash Storage (UFS) flash memory. So it is the standard for the next generation of memory cards and mobile devices. But we should know that it is also an evolution of the previous standard UFS 2.0.

What does a UFS 2.1 flash memory do?

UFS 2.1 flash memory is a storage device that uses a memory card interface, but with much higher performance. So at the fundamental level, we can use it to store data.

What is so great about UFS 2.1?

The storage solution is one of the most important parts of the mobile phone. Why do we say that? Because it has a huge impact on the overall experience of the user. So here is the good news! Handsets equipped with a UFS 2.1 storage solution is faster than the traditional eMMC 5.1 storage solution.

What is the difference between UFS 2.1 and eMMC 5.1?

UFS 2.1 is a newer flash technology. So it has a higher bandwidth and therefore much faster than eMMC 5.1.

What is the bandwidth of UFS 2.1?

UFS 2.1 has a maximum bandwidth of 800MB/s, which is 4 times faster than the eMMC 5.1, and 10 times faster than the eMMC 5.0. But not just that! It can also reach the sequential read and write speeds of up to 624MB/s and 154MB/s respectively.

What is the storage capacity of UFS 2.1?

The storage capacity of UFS 2.1 chip is usually 128GB.

So now that we got some idea of what an UFS storage is, it is time to answer our actual question. And you already know what the question is.

What is the difference between UFS 2.1 and UFS 3?

What is the bandwidth of UFS 2.1?

UFS2.1 is the previous version of Universal Flash Storage (UFS) and it is backward compatible with UFS2.0. UFS2.1 can reach a maximum of 800MB/s. So it is mainly used in high-end mobile devices.

What is the bandwidth of UFS 3?

UFS3 is the latest version of Universal Flash Storage (UFS) and is backward compatible with UFS2.0. UFS3 can reach a maximum of 1.2GB/s and is mainly used in high end smartphones and other gadgets.

What is the transfer speed of UFS 2.1?

UFS2.1 is the second generation of Universal Flash Storage. It has a transfer speed of up to 600MB/s.

What is the transfer speed of UFS 3?

UFS3 is the third generation of Universal Flash Storage. It has a transfer speed of up to 1.6GB/s.

When was UFS 2.1 launched?

UFS 2.1 was launched in the first half of 2017.

When was UFS3 released?

UFS3 was released in January 2018.

Conclusion

So those were some of the differences we could think of, when talking about UFS. But this is still the tip of the ice berg. Because there is a lot more to it than just the speed and capacity of this flash memory.

However, these other differences are too technical and not something that really matters for end users or programmers. So we will skip on talking about those differences. Alright?

But other than that, I think we have discussed on all that is relevant. Also, if I find some more interesting differences beyond these, I will update this article. So do follow this blog for any updates on UFS. Alright?

In the next article, we will look at some more internal components of a smartphone. I would have loved to discuss about it here. But this article has already grown too big. So I will post it as a separate post.

So, until next time, take care! ๐Ÿ™‚

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What Is A Microprocessor?

Before I answer your question of what a microprocessor is, let me ask you this question first. Have you ever used an electronic gadget such as a mobile phone, a calculator or a computer?

If you answered yes to any of these, then you have already used a microprocessor! Because microprocessor is at the core of each one of these devices. It is what is running these devices!

So what is a microprocessor?

A microprocessor in simple terms can be seen as just a tiny little electrical circuit system. It takes in one or more electrical voltages as input and in turn produces one or more electrical voltage signals as output. You can then use these output electrical signals to control external devices.

Now that sounds like just about any other electrical circuits then, right? Well, not really! Because a microprocessor is not your ordinary electrical circuit. But instead, it is an electrical circuit that you can program to make it behave differently!

So what does that mean? It means that you can make a microprocessor do different thing at different times. And all you have to do to achieve this is to program it differently!

You cannot do that with any electrical circuit right? That is the main difference between a microprocessor and any other electrical circuit! That it is programmable!

So what does that mean? It means that you can take two or more microprocessors and program it to behave differently!

Alright, if you now got an idea of what a microprocessor does, let us now see how it looks like!

How does a microprocessor look like?

Thanks to advancing technology, a microprocessor circuit has been made so small that you can’t just connect it to external devices by hand. So to facilitate this, a microprocessor circuit is put inside a plastic case and pins are pulled out of its input and output connection points. So using these pins, you will be able to connect the microprocessor to external devices.

Here is how a microprocessor looks like with its plastic casing and connector pins.

A Texas Instruments Microprocessor IC chip
A Texas Instruments Microprocessor IC chip

So as you can see from the pic above of a TI microprocessor chip, there are a number of input and output pins present in it.

To know what each of these input does and what voltage it works at, we will need to take a look at it’s Datasheet.

So that’s it. That should give you a gist of what a microprocessor looks like. We will go more in depth on how a microprocessor works in the future articles. But this should hopefully be now be a good starting point for you to start exploring more about it.

But if there is something that is not clear or you have any more questions about it, do not hesitate to ask. I will be more than happy to help.

So with that I will end this article here. See you around! ๐Ÿ™‚