Categories
INSTAGRAM PHOTOGRAPHY SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

What Does Aspect Ratio Mean In Photography?

Aspect Ratio is one of the important parameter in photography that determines the quality of a photograph. In this article, we will try to understand what an Aspect Ratio means in photography and how to chose the best Aspect Ratio while taking photographs.

You might be taking your photographs using a dedicated Photographic camera or by using a simple smartphone camera, but what makes a real difference in how these images evolve ultimately depends on the Aspect Ratio of these images. So let us dwell in detail into understanding the concept of aspect ratios in pictures and how you can determine which is the best aspect ratio to use in your pictures, depending on the type of pictures you want to take.

When you look into any photograph, you will notice that it is composed of a two dimensional capture of a moment in time and place. This two dimensional aspect of the subject of the image is then captured and stored in your photograph in two dimension as well. In other words, your photograph has two dimensions associated with it, its width and its height. It is the ratio of this width and height of a photograph that is called its Aspect Ratio.

An image representation describing the Aspect Ratio of a photograph to be the ratio of width to height.
Representation Of Aspect Ratio In Photography

There exists many different aspect ratios used in photography these days such as the 4:3 Aspect Ratio, 3:2 Aspect Ratio or 16:9 Aspect Ratios. In addition to these, photographers sometimes also use aspect ratios such as 5:3, 5:4 and 1:1 as well for medium or large photographs.

When to use 1:1 Aspect Ratio

With the emergence of various social media platforms such as instagram, facebook or twitter, the unusual aspect ratio of 1:1 has become popular these days. With this kind of aspect ratio, users can record video or capture images while holding the smartphone vertically while still be able to view the resulting video or images horizontally without losing any information in the image.

1:1 Aspect Ratio usually used my Instagram, Facebook, Twitter etc.

When to use 4:3 Aspect Ratio

4:3 Aspect ratios are the most commonly used aspect ratio in TVs and films. However, even devices such as iPad and other tablets use 4:3 aspect ratio displays so images taken with aspect ratio 4:3 will view better on ipads and other tablets when compared to other ratios.

4:3 Aspect Ratio usually used by iPad, TVs

When to use 16:9 Aspect Ratio

The 16:9 Aspect Ratio has become a recent standard usually found in high definition pictures and videos that can be best viewed on a HD screen, TVs and monitors. In a HD image with higher resolution, we can get detailed information in an image even when we zoom into the picture.

16:9 Aspect Ratio usually used in HD TV, HD Monitors & HD Displays

When to use 9:16 Aspect Ratio

Just like 16:9 aspect ratio used in HD images and videos, there emerged its inverted 9:16 Aspect Ratio that was popularized by Snapchat in its “stories” feature. This is an aspect ratio where in user is expected to record videos in portrait mode (using their smartphone vertically instead of horizontally) and viewed in portrait mode (vertically) as well. With the “stories” feature of Snapchat becoming popular, this ratio has been adopted by other social networks such as Facebook and Instagram as well.

9:16 Aspect Ratio used in Snapchat, Instagram stories

With so many new media applications becoming popular on smartphones, the aspect ratios of photography and videos keep on evolving, so this is not an all inclusive list but something that keeps on emerging as the time progresses.

Categories
Android Filesystem HARDWARE SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

What Is Jmtpfs In Linux & How To Use It? Explained

Jmtpfs is a combination of FUSE (Userspace Filesystem) and MTP (Media Transfer Protocol) stack integrated together to form a filesystem tool. The jmtpfs tool is then used to mount your smartphones or other handheld devices onto your Linux computer so that you can browse the content of your smartphone or handheld device directly from your computer.

Jmtpfs filesystem stack in a Linux computer

What Is A FUSE Filesystem?

FUSE filesystem stands for Userspace Filesystem. In general cases, when you need to create your own filesystems, you need to have knowledge of the Operating System (OS) kernel and block storage device drivers. This would restrict the development of new filesystems to only kernel developers.

In Linux, in order to overcome this, a new type of filesystem model was introduced called the FUSE file system. In a FUSE filesystem, you will make use of a pre-written generic FUSE Linux kernel module, which you as a userspace developer need not have to modify. In addition to this, you will also make use of a pre-written FUSE userspace library that would provide the required API interfaces to the FUSE kernel modules form the userspace.

Using these two modules, it is now possible for the userspace developers to write their own filesystems by inserting the FUSE kernel module into their machine’s operating system and then writing their own filesystem with the help of FUSE library modules.

Such developed FUSE filesystems will place the files and directories exposed by the filesystem in the userspace region of the OS which is accessible by even non privileged users.

What Is Media Transfer Protocol (MTP)?

Media Transfer Protocol (MTP) is a type of protocol used to transfer media files such as audio files, videos files or image files at the file level rather than at the storage level. This protocol became a USB standard to transfer media files between a computer and a USB device.

The main reason why we would use an MTP protocol instead of the USB standard Mass Storage protocol is that when you use a Media Transfer Protocol (MTP) to transfer file, the whole file is transferred from the device to the computer or vice versa. So, the entire transfer of file happens as a single unit, hence transactional. In this way, both the device and host can continue to access the same file simultaneously, which is not possible when using a USB Mass Storage Device Class (MSC) protocol.

In case of an USB MSC protocol, when a USB mass storage device such as a music player is mounted on to a computer, the music player loses control over the files which is stored within itself and is taken over by the host computer’s filesystem. In this situation, the host computer can modify the content of the files and the USB device has no way to prevent it. This may lead to host computer corrupting the files of the USB mass storage device! But this situation is not at all possible when we use an MTP protocol due to its transactional file transfer nature. Hence MTP protocol is preferred over a USB MSC protocol.

JMPTFS tool makes use of both FUSE filesystem and the USB MTP protocol to mount the content of your smartphone onto a local directory on your computer, thereby giving access to the file contents of your smartphone even when you are a non privileged user.

How To Use Jmtpfs tool To Transfer Files From Your Smartphone

In order to use jmtpfs, you first need to create a local directory such as ‘myPhone’ in your computer. Next, you connect your Android or any other smartphone to your computer using an USB cable. Then by issuing the console command ‘jmtpfs myPhone’ you can mount the content of your smartphone onto your mount directory ‘myPhone’. In other words, after issuing the command, you will be able to browse the content of your smartphone within the mount directory ‘myPhone’ just like any other files and folders of your computer.

> mkdir ~/myPhone
> jmtpfs ~/myPhone
> ls myPhone
  Internal storage/

At the end, in order to unmount your smartphone filesystem from your computer, you need to issue another command:

> fusermount -u ~/myPhone

This should unmount your smartphone’s filesystem safely without corrupting any part of the filesystem on your smartphone.

Categories
Android SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

Motorola One Macro Launched, Priced At Rs.9999

Motorola has officially launched its next Android smartphone in its Motorola One series called the Motorola One Macro. Motorola One Macro is priced at Rs.9999 and will be available for purchase from its official online partner Flipkart website and app from October 12, 2019.

Motorola One Macro

Motorola One Macro is yet another Android smartphone from Motorola focusing primarily on its camera functionality just like its predecessors Motorola One Action & Motorola One Vision.

Motorola One Macro specializes and differentiates itself from other smartphones by utilizing a seperate Macro camera sensor that helps in capturing natural photos at close ups to reveal hidden details that are not normally captured by other camera sensors.

Motorola One Macro also comes with a 6.2 inches Max Vision display, 4 GB RAM, 64 GB Built In Internal Storage with memory card support that can expand the internal storage by adding SD Card support of upto 512 GB.

Motorola One Macro is powered by a Octa Core Mediatek Helio P70 microprocessor which is fabricated using 12 nm technology. On the GPU front, Motorola One Macro is GPU powered by 900MHz Mali GPU designed by ARM.

Motorola One Macro also supports Hybrid nano Dual SIMs where one of the SIM slot will be shared with a micro SD Card, so you will only be able to use SIM or a micro SD Card in that hybrid SIM/SD Card slot.

On the Operating System (OS) front, Motorola One Macro runs on Android 9 Pie, however despite its name and being in the Motorola One series where other smartphones ran on Android One OS, this Motorola One Macro does not run on an Android One.

Speaking of the camera, Motorola One Macro boasts a 13 MP rear camera with f/2.0 aperture and LED Flash support, a 2 MP Macro camera sensor and another 2 MP depth sensor for portrait captures. The front selfie camera boasts a 8 MP sensor with f/2.2 aperture at 1.12μm pixel size.

In addition to this, the Motorola One Macro comes with various standard sensors such as accelerometer, gyroscope, proximity sensor along with finger print sensor which is becoming quite common these days.

On the Audio front, Motorola One Macro provides support for 3.5mm audio jack, mono speaker with dolby surround sound and adds support for FM Radio.

Talking about the battery, Motorola One Macro comes with a 4000 mAh battery, which when compared with the previous launch of Motorola One Action which supported only 3500 mAh battery, is much better here. The charging rate is still at 10W.

The Motorola One Macro is not exactly water resitant, but with its IPX2 rating, this Android smartphone is for sure splash resistant like its predecessors.

On the wireless side, Motorola One Macro supports the standard Dual 4G VoLTE, WiFi 802.11 b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.2, GPS, GLONASS and comes with support of USB Type-C connector.

All in all, the Motorola One Macro Android smartphone sure looks like a smartphone that is quite good for its price tag of just Rs.9,999 and if you are a photo enthusiast and particularly into Macro photography, then Motorola One Macro Android smartphone is something that you would love to keep in your pocket for those sudden opportunities that arises where you can go for Macro photography without having to run around to fetch your dedicated macro photography camera.

Categories
SMARTPHONES

Why Does Your Smartphone Not Fast Charge When Using Any USB Cable

Fast charging of smartphone batteries are a new and must needed feature these days, especially with Android devices supporting it effectively across all variants of smartphones and tablets. Most of the smartphone supports less than 30 minutes of charging sufficient to reach over 75% of battery charge.

How does a smartphone charge so quickly?

Most of these Android smartphones that support this fast charging feature in them makes it possible by using a proprietary USB fast charging technology. These proprietary fast charging technologies while helps in improving the charge time, but because of their proprietary nature, works well only when you use their provided USB chargers and cables. So, as a result if you try to use a different USB charger or a USB cable, the charging time would go slow again, thereby making you lose all the advantages of fast charging capabilities.

Is USB Fast Charging Not Standardized For Smartphones?

This begs the question as to why we are going for a proprietary USB fast charging technologies that limits its usage to only its own USB fast chargers and USB cables. Can’t this not be standardized in such a way that they can be made to work with all USB chargers and USB cables used with our smartphones?

The answer is yes. We do have a USB fast charging capability built into the USB C standards, covered under the category USB Power Delivery (or USB PD for short). This standard states that all smartphones and similar handheld devices such as Android tablets that comes built with USB Type C connectors and cables need to meet and support the USB Power Delivery (USB PD) specification.

The USB Power Delivery specification states that these smartphone/tablet or other handheld devices need to be capable of delivering upto 100W of power.

However, even then, many Android Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) still do not support this USB C Power Delivery (USB PD) specification and still continue to use proprietary USB fast charging technologies.

But recently, Google is coming down hard on these OEMs and trying to enforce USB PD support for all the Android devices manufactured by them, atleast from Android 10 onwards. This, when achieved, should eventually make all Proprietary USB Fast charging technologies redundant and bring in the USB Power Delivery (USB PD) as the industry standard for USB fast charging technology.

When this happen, we will finally be able to move out of proprietary USB Fast charging technologies and be free to use any USB chargers with any USB cables to charge our Android smartphones and tablets and still be able to enjoy the USB fast charging functionality.

Until then, we will have to make do with the warning messages on our smartphone devices that reads “Device charging slowly use original charger” when connected with non original USB chargers and USB cables. 🙁

Categories
SMARTPHONES

Motorola One Macro Specification Revealed, To Launch On Oct 9 2019

Motorola One Macro Android smartphone is set to be launched on Flipkart this October 9, 2019. Motorola One Macro is yet another smartphone lined up along the Motorola One series, the Motorola smartphone series running on the Android One platform.

Motorola One Macro smartphone is said to boast a separate camera on its rear side that would be used specifically to capture Macro photography. Macro photography is a style of photography where in the photographer would capture a subject at extreme close up, there by revealing extremely detailed picture of the subject. Macro photography style is very popular in nature photography where one would take and expose a detailed picture of natural subjects such as flowers, leaves, trees, hives etc.

With Motorola One Macro smartphone, now the photographers will be able to achieve this even when they are not carrying their specialized camera equipment everywhere there go but yet have an urge to take macro photographs as and when the opportunity arises.

In order to achieve support for Macro photographs, Motorola One Macro smartphone is expected to feature a dedicated macro photographic camera sensor somewhere around 2 MP in resolution along with its standard 13 MP camera sensor and another 2 MP depth camera sensors, as usually found in all other Motorola One series of smartphones such as Motorola Vision, Motorola Action & Motorola Power.

While Macro photographic camera would be the main highlight of Motorola One Macro smartphone, it is also expected to boast a good 4000 mAh battery for a full day battery performance, a 6 inch plus LCD display and is also expected to run on a Mediatek processor, possibly Helio P60.

On the front camera side, the Motorola One Macro phone is also expected to carry a good high camera with a resolution as high as 8 MP.

As with the recently launched Motorola One Action smartphone in August 2019, the current Motorola One Macro smartphone is also expected to run on Android 9 Pie Operating System.

The Motorola One Macro smartphone is also expected to boast a tear drop type of notch, although we do not have many details to verify this.

The teaser page of Motorola One Macro smartphone is already up on the Flipkart e-commerce website which boasts some interesting features such as magnified details thanks to the Motorola One Macro’s Macro camera sensor, maximized speed for a quick capture even under challenging lighting conditions (read low lighting conditions), rapid charging, highly multitasking capable smartphone and more.

We will further keep you updated on the Motorola One Macro smartphone as soon as we get any further information. Until then, happy shopping!