Categories
ELECTRICAL SCIENCE ELECTRONICS TUTORIALS

A 600-W TV Receiver Is Turned On For 4 h With Nobody Watching It

A 600-W TV receiver is turned on for 4 h with
nobody watching it. If electricity costs 10 cents/kWh,
how much money is wasted?

So this is a problem that we have taken from the book Fundamentals Of Electrical Circuits By Alexander. But if you want to take a look at the problem yourself, then go to Chapter 1 question 1.39 of the book.

Solve Fundamentals Of Electrical Circuits Problem 1.39 - A 600-W TV receiver
Solve Fundamentals Of Electrical Circuits Problem 1.39 – “A 600-W TV receiver”

Since this is a problem we have taken from the Chapter 1 – Basic Concepts, it should be easy. But is that right? Well, let us see as we try to solve it, shall we?

So how do we go about solving this problem?

Well as we always do, we will first break the problem into small parts. By doing that, we will be in a better position to understand the problem in the first place. Right?

So, here is our breakdown of the problem.

The Problem Breakdown

So let us read out the problem once again, line by line. Alright?

Now the first line of the question reads – “A 600-W TV receiver is turned on for 4 h with nobody watching it.

So what do we learn from that? It means that we have a TV which consumes electricity at 600 Watts Per Hour or 600 Watt/Hr. But we can also write this as 0.6 Kilo Watts Per Hour or 0.6KW/Hr, right? So that means:

P = 0.6 KW/Hour

Ok! So with that being clear, we will move on to our next part of the question which reads – “If electricity costs 10 cents/kWh, how much money is wasted?”

From this sentence, we now know that the cost of 1 KW of Power consumption for every hour is 10 cents.

Electricity Price = 10c/KW

So the question after that then becomes quite simple, isn’t it? It is just asking us to find out what will be the electricity bill for running that A 600-W TV receiver for 4 hours.

A 600-W TV receiver Electricity Cost In 4 Hours?

So solving this now becomes a simple equation:

Total Bill = Power Consumed By TV in 4 hours * Elec. Price

So then what is the total Power consumed by the TV in 4 hours? It is simple right? If the TV consumes 0.6KW in 1 hour, then the amount of Power it consumes in 4 hours is:

Power consumed in 4 hours = 0.6KW * 4 = 2.4KW

So it is now clear right? The TV has consumed 2.4KW in 4 hours. So then what will be the electricity price for this much of power?

Total Bill = 2.4KW * 10 cents => $0.24

Categories
COMPUTER SCIENCE TUTORIALS

Which of the following is not a social networking website?

Which one of the following is not a social networking website? (a) Twitter (b)Facebook (c)My Space (d)Hotmail​

So in this article we will try to find out which one of those websites are not a social networking site.

Which of these are not social media sites?
Which of these are not social media sites?

But before we do that, we first need to understand what a social media website is. Right? So let us start from that point.

What Is A Social Media Website?

So there are many ways to answer this question. One is to explain it using take a text book definition of it which says:

Any website that allows people to create & share content to allow them for social networking.

But the problem is, it is not so clear in what it really means. Correct? So we can’t just go by it. Then what can we do about it? Well, let me explain you in a much simpler way. Alright? So here is my way of explaining it.

Any website using which we can create content & post it for the world to see while having a way to talk to others in real time is a social networking website.

What is not a social networking website?

It is not a social networking website if you cannot make your own post public and talk to them at the same time.

Does that make sense?

Answer With Explanation

Well then with that in our mind, let us look at each of the options given in the question. Alright? Here we go!

  1. Twitter – Is this a social networking website? So answer the questions asked above to find out. (i) Can you post on Twitter? Answer: Yes. (ii) Can you talk to others in real time? Answer: Yes. So as you can see, the answers for both the questions is Yes. So that means it is indeed a social networking website!
  2. Facebook – Is this a social networking website? So answer the questions asked above to find out. (i) Can you post publicly on Facebook? Answer: Yes. (ii) Can you talk to others in real time? Answer: Yes. So then this too should a social network!
  3. Myspace – Again, ask the same questions. (i) Can you post publicly on Myspace? Answer: Yes. (ii) Can you talk to others in real time? Answer: Yes. So that means it is indeed a social networking website!
  4. Hotmail – (i) Can you post publicly on Myspace? Answer: No. (ii) Can you talk to others in real time? Answer: Yes. So as you can see here, we cannot post publicly on Hotmail. Which means it is not one!

So from this analysis, we can see that the answer we should be picking up amount the given choices is (d)Hotmail.

What we can learn from here is that if we try to break down the problem into smaller parts, it is easier to answer. Correct? So as you can see, we went through each of the options in the question and tried to answer them. It is only then that we were able to answer it. Right?

Categories
ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED IOT TUTORIALS

What Is An Electrical Circuit – Explained For Dummies

Have you ever tried to look inside an electronic device? If you have, then we are sure that you have come across an electrical circuit. Right? But ever wonder what an electrical circuit is? What it does and why we use them?

No? Then this is an article you should read to get a some idea about it. Since you are new to an electrical circuit, we will try to keep it simple so that it is easy for you to understand. Sounds good? Great! Then let us get started, shall we?

Introduction To An Electrical Circuit

Definition Of An Electrical Circuit

The text book definition of an electrical circuit goes something like this:

It is an interconnection of electrical elements used to transmit power.

But I know that this will not help you understand much as it is quite vague. Right? So let me explain to you about it in simple words.

Electric Circuit Explained In Simple Terms

We know what an electricity is, right? It is the energy source to run many of our every day equipment like TV, Radio, Laptops, Fans, AC etc.

But here is the problem. We don’t normally generate electricity in our houses (Unless your house is solar powered). So where is it generated then? Usually in the Power generation units located in a far off place like water falls, Nuclear plants etc.

So then how do we get this electricity delivered to our houses? Well that is when we use the power lines, right?

But even after you get your electricity to your homes through power lines, it is still not good to run your electrical devices. Why, you ask?

Well that is because the power supplied to our homes are quite high – usually between 100V to 240V. But our electrical devices like laptops or fans dont really need that much of power. Then what do we do?

That is when we make use of an electrical circuit!

Using electrical circuits, we will transfer power to our devices at the right amount that it requires. So in other words, we make use of electrical circuits to transfer the electrical power to a device at the right level.

So what is an electrical circuit made of? Want to take a guess? I did tell you about it already once. Not sure?

Well look at the definition above and tell me. What do you see?

If you said “Electrical elements” then you go it right!

What Are Electrical Elements?

So an electrical circuit contains electrical elements in it. You are clear about that, right? But what are these elements? I never told you about it, isn’t it?

Well, we have many type of electrical in use. And each one of these elements have their own purpose in a circuit. But to give you an idea, here are some examples of electrical elements in use:

  • Resistors
  • Capacitors
  • Inductors
  • Diodes
  • Transistors
  • Transformers etc

So as you can see, we have a lot of elements to use in an electrical circuit. But why do we have so many of them? Well, it is because each of the element have their own set of functionalities. So depending on what we need, we will pick up the right element in our circuit.

Sounds good so far? Great. That is all there is to it. But, before I end this article, let me show you a simple electrical circuit as an example. By looking into it, you will get a good idea about what we are dealing with. Right?

So take a look at this simple circuit where we have an LED light connected through a resistor, capacitor and few other elements. Now I will not go in detail about how it works and all. That should be a separate article by itself in the future.

But this should give you a good mental picture of how an electrical circuit looks like. Take a look at it!

A Simple Electrical Circuit Example
A Simple Electrical Circuit Example

Conclusion

So that is how an electrical circuit looks like. By now, I hope you have got a good idea about what an electrical circuit is and why we need to use it.

If you still have any doubts about it, do let me know in the comments below. I will be more than happy to help you guys out!

So until next time, happy learning! 🙂

Learn the difference between a serial and parallel electrical circuit.

Categories
Android SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

Use Your Smartphone As A Document Camera

So in this article, we will see how we can use the smartphone as a document camera. Now as you know, every one of us hold a smartphone with us. So using it to help teach others in a better way is a great thing to do, Right?!

Smartphone Camera As A Document Camera
Smartphone Camera As A Document Camera

But before we learn how to do this, let us first know what a Document Camera is. Knowing what it does and the features it provides will help us know how good we can make use of it. This will help us better in turning our smartphone as a document camera.

You agree with me on this, right? Great! Then let us start from there!

What Is A Document Camera?

A document camera is a device we use for teaching purpose. We use it to take images or videos of a subject and send it to a projector to show it on a large screen.

But you may ask, why do we need such a thing?

Well you see, teaching your students using classroom board is all fine and good. But it is useful only when you are teaching theory. Now when it comes to explaining practical things, you need to demonstrate it as you explain, right?

But here is where you have a problem!

If you have a class with a lot of students, say something like 20+, how can you show your experiments to all? Surely you can not make them come take a look at your experiments one by one. Right? Because that will take you a whole day then.

So then what is an alternative way to demonstrate your experiments to your students? Well, just capture it with a camera & project it on a large screen, right? Does that make sense?

In that way, you will not have to bring in each student to the experiment and teach them one by one. You can simply demonstrate it to all in one go!

And that is why you need a document camera.

A document camera will capture an image or a video and send it to a projector to project it on a screen.

Why To Use Your Smartphone As A Document Camera?

So now that we know why what a document camera is, let us see how to use our smartphone as one.

But wait a minute. Before we go about exploring that, let us first see why we want to use a smartphone for that. Are there no document camera available in the market that we can directly buy?

Well, we do have document cameras that we can buy in the market. But the problem is that they are quite costly. They cost anywhere around $800.

Now that is quite a price to pay if you are a small teaching faculty right?

So our next better option will be to go with an alternative that doesn’t cost so much. And what better than to use an Android smartphone camera as a document camera. Right? As we already have them in our pockets, we do not have to spend any extra money for that. Right?

So that is why we are looking for a smartphone document camera. But do we have one?

How To Turn Your Smartphone Into A Document Camera?

Well, I tried to search through the Google Play store for an app that could turn my phone into a document camera. However, there did not seem like one exists.

So I had to get a little bit creative to create a solution myself. So what did I do for that? Read along to know.

Android Smartphone App To Capture Video

So the first thing I had to do was to find a camera app to capture image or record a video. Now wait a minute. Can I not use the camera app that already exists on my phone? Well, unfortunately NO. Because I need a way to send this video to my laptop screen and it was not possible with my built-in camera app.

So what else can I do then?

Here comes the IP Webcam Android App for the rescue.

Now if you recall, I had already installed this app from the playstore earlier. I had used it to turn my Android phone as camera for my OBS broadcasting.

And guess what? The video captured using this Android app can be accessed using an IP address!

The IP Webcam app converts by Android phone camera into a network IP camera that has its own IP address. Right?

So now all I need to do is use this IP address on my laptop browser and project it on the screen!

Pretty nifty, huh?! 😉

Conclusion

So that is it. That is how we can use our Android smartphone camera as a Document camera. So go ahead and try it out on your own. And if you come across any problem, do let me know in the comments below. I will be more than happy to help!

So until next time, take care and have fun learning new things! 🙂

Categories
Android ANDROID APP ELECTRONICS SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

Use Android Phone As A Camera For OBS – How To Guide

So you installed OBS to stream your activity, but then realized that do not have a webcam? Well do not worry. Because in this article, we will teach you how to use your Android phone as a camera for OBS.

So you have an Android smartphone with you and you want to use it as a camera for OBS. Is that right? Well then, we are happy to tell you that you can do so without any problem.

But how? Well, all you have to do is to follow along this article. It will give you step by step instruction to turn your Android phone as a camera for OBS.

So are you ready for that? Great! Then here we go!

What You Need To Use Your Android Phone As A Camera For OBS?

Lucky for you! Because you do not need many items to turn your Android smartphone into an OBS webcam. All you need is:

  • Android Phone
  • Internet Connection To Download An Android App
  • Space In Your Smartphone To Install The App
  • Computer where the OBS software is installed

How To Use Android Phone As A Camera For OBS

So the first step involved in turning your Android Phone into an OBS webcam is to install an app from the playstore.

Install the Android app IP Webcam from the playstore.

Once the IP Webcam Android app is installed on your Android smartphone, click on it to open the app.

So are you wondering what this IP Webcam app do? Well, it just turns your Android phone’s camera into an IP camera.

What Is An IP Camera?

An IP camera is a camera that is connected to a computer network. So what does that mean? It means that you can connect to this camera through your network and start accessing it. So it also means that you can connect to the camera from the internet and view live video feed or take pictures out of it.

Configure IP Webcam Android App

So when you run the IP Webcam app, you will be turning your phone into an IP camera. Now once your Android phone’s camera appears as a IP network camera, you can connect to it from your computer running OBS software.

So this is exactly what we are trying to achieve here. Got it?

So now let us get back to the IP Webcam app on your Android phone.

If you just opened the app, you should see a screen where you can set up the camera. For now, we will leave all the default settings on this page of the app as it is. Alright?

IP Webcam Settings Page To Use Android Phone As A Camera For OBS
IP Webcam Settings Page To Use Android Phone As A Camera For OBS

Next, we scroll down the app to reach the end of the page. Now when you do so, you will see at the end of the page an option to “Start Server”.

GO ahead and click on this button. That should start your Android camera as an IP webcam. If you scroll the page now, you should be seeing an IP address of your Android phone.

It should look something like this:

http://192.168.1.50:8080

So fif you are seeing this address, then your smartphone camera is working as an IP camera. This is the IP address of that webcam. Alright?

So what do we do next?

Well, it’s simple, go ahead and run your OBS software on your computer. Once it has started, you can connect to the IP camera using the above IP address.

Configuring OBS to connect to the Android Phone IP Camera

Insert the IP address along with a video source set to VLC Source.

So here is how it should finally look on your OBS software:

http://192.168.1.50:8080/video

Once this is done, you should be able to see the live feed of your Android Phone camera in your OBS.

Conclusion

So that is it. That is how you get your Android Phone camera to work as an OBS camera. If you have any questions about it, do let me know in the comments below. So until next time, cheers! 🙂

Categories
ANDROID APP COMPUTER HARDWARE PROGRAMMING SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

Turn Android Phone Into A Bootable USB Drive

In this article, we will learn how we can turn our Android phone into a Bootable USB drive. So by doing so, we can just use our Android smartphone to install OS on our computers.

But are you now wondering why do we even want to do that in the first place? What are we going to gain by doing so? Well I agree! These are all valid questions you are asking. So let me first explain to you about the advantages of that.

Turn Your Android Phone Into A Bootable USB
Turn Your Android Phone Into A Bootable USB

Sounds good? Great! Then let us get started!

Advantages of turning Android smartphone into a bootable USB drive

So here are some of the advantages I can think of in turning our Android into a bootable USB drive:

  • As we carry our smartphones with us every where we go, a bootable USB drive will be there with us all the time.
  • Chances of losing a bootable USB drive becomes less – If we created a separate bootable OS USB drive, there is a high change of us losing it. But if we have it on our smartphones, chances of losing it reduces greatly. Right?
  • Download new OS ISO images on the fly – Now what do we mean by that? You see, if we are using a USB pen drive as a bootable device, we can boot only those OS images that are already stored in it. But if we want to install a new OS, we cant, right? But on the other hand, if we use our Android smartphone as a bootable drive, we can download new OS ISO images from the internet on the fly, directly onto our smartphone. Now, that is a cool thing to be able to do, right? 😉

So now that we know how an Android smartphone bootable USB drive is beneficial, let us see how we can create one.

How To Turn Your Android Phone Into A Bootable USB?

There are many Android apps on the Google Playstore that we can use to turn our Android Phone into a bootable USB drive. But the most famous one is called the DriveDroid.

The main advantage of this app is that it provides you with many ISO images that you can download directly. Some of the ISO images that DriveDroid provides includes – Arch Linux, Debian, Fedora, FreeBSD ISOs and many more.

So we will be using this Android app to use our smartphone as a bootable USB drive.

Here are the steps you need to take to turn Android Phone into a Bootable USB:

  1. Install The App From The Google Playstore: Now, as we discussed earlier in the article, go ahead and install the app from the Android Playstore.
  2. Connect The Android Smartphone Into Your Computer Using USB: Make sure that your smartphone is connected in USB MTP mode.
  3. Open the App On Your Smartphone: Click and open the Android app on your smartphone.
  4. Click On the ‘+’ button and select “Create Blank Image”: This is where you will be creating your bootable USB Drive space.
  5. Set A Bootable Image Name & Its Size: This is where you will be setting the name and size of the boot space. Make sure that the size you set is equal to or greater than the ISO file size. Click the Create button at last.
  6. Select An OS ISO Image To Burn Into The USB Space: This is the final step where we choose the OS image we want to burn into our bootable USB space.

Once you have followed the above steps, you should a bootable USB drive as part of your Android smartphone.

How To Boot An ISO Image From Android Smartphone

So that is it! Those were the only steps you had to take to create a bootable OS on your smartphone. Now anytime you want to boot a computer using this USB bootable drive, just follow these steps:

  • Plug in your smartphone to the computer you want to boot, using a USB cable.
  • Power ON the computer and go to its BIOS menu by pressing F2 or the F10 key as mentioned on the computer screen.
  • Go to the Boot Priority and change it to Boot From USB to select your Android smartphone.

That is it. From here on, your PC should boot just like how it would from any USB bootable device.

Conclusion

So these days, your Android smartphone has become the swiss army knife of technology. You can use it to do many things that required several gadgets earlier.

In this blog, we try to explore all the different ways we can use our smartphones to make our lives better. So if you liked what you read, bookmark muddoo.com on your browser and visit it regularly to read more content like this.

Also, if you have any questions or suggestions for our website, please do leave a comment below. We will be delighted to know what you think! So until next time, cya and take care!

Categories
ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED EMBEDDED COMPUTERS EMBEDDED PROGRAMMING IOT PROGRAMMING RASPBERRY PI TUTORIALS

WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference In LED Strip

Are you planning to connect LED strips to your board? Then you would want to know the difference between WS2811 Vs WS2812. So read below to know more!

Most of the articles on Arduino or Raspberry Pi asks you to hook up an WS2811 or WS2812 LED strip to your board. But have you ever tried to know why these LED strips? Why not any other LED strips? What makes them so special? And what about the WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference?

WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference In LED
WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference In LED

Not many tutorials out there have tried to answer these questions. So in this article, we will do just that! So brace yourself. Sit tight and join the ride to learn all about these LED strips. Alright? Cool! Here we go!

What Is An LED Strip?

So before we dwell into learning the WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference, let us try to answer this question first.

What is an LED?

An LED is a simple semiconductor device that will emit light when electric current flows through it. Now notice how I used the term “semiconductor device“. But what type of device is it? Well to be precise, it is a semiconductor diode.

So in short, LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. So what do we mean by that? It means that when electricity passes through this diode, it emits light!

So now that we know what an LED is, it is time to answer our next question.

What Is WS2811 LED Strip?

A WS2811 LED strip uses WS2811 LED driver chip to control the LED strip. Uhh… Got confused by what I just said?

Well, let me clear that for you by answering this question.

What is an LED strip?

You see, an LED strip is just a fancy way of connecting a bunch of LED lights together along a strip of wire. So an LED strip will have more than one LED lights in them.

But what makes them great is that you can address each of these LED lights separately.

Wait what? How can we do that, you ask?

Well that is where LED driver IC like WS8211 comes into picture. It is these chips that will help us connecting to each of the LED and controlling them to turn then ON or OFF.

Are you with me until here? Great! Then let us find answer to the next question

How Does WS8211 Chip Control LED?

So here is the thing. To control individual LEDs in a strip, LED driver chips like WS8211 is used. These chips sit alongside the LED and control their light intensity.

So by makes use of serial protocol in your microcontroller and assigning unique addresses to each of the LED driver chip you can control each of the LEDs.

So this way, when you want to control an LED, your board’s microcontroller will send out the address of the LED driver chip to be controlled. This will make the respective LED chip accept the next set of commands to be sent for itself.

And this way, your board will be able to control every LED to be turned ON or OFF!

Pretty neat, isn’t it? 😉

So now that we know what an LED driver chip like WS8211 does, it is finally time to ask the important question of this article.

WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference

While both WS2811 & WS2812 are LED controller ICs, there are a few notable differences between them. Here are few of them that we listed out for you:

WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference In Power

WS2811 LED chip uses 12V to work. Where as a WS2812 chip which uses only 5V. But then how will this impact you?

Well you see, if you are going to use along LED strip with many LEDs in them, you are going to see quite a bit of voltage drop along the strip.

Which means that the last few LEDs that is present at the far end of the strip from the board will get lower voltage. Now, if this drop is significant, your last few LEDs might not be glowing as well as its should be.

You do not want that. Right?

So for example you have 30 LEDs in your strip and the voltage drop is 2V towards the end of the strip. Well in that case, if you are using a WS2811 chip, the last few LEDs will get around 10V. This is still reasonably OK for an LED supposed to operate at 12V.

But on the other hand, if you are using WS2812 that works at 5V. the same voltage drop will be down to 3V from the supposed 5V. Now that is quite a significant voltage drop there. Right?

So you need to keep this in mind while choosing between WS2811 Vs WS2812.

WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference In LEDs Controlled

WS2811 actually do not control one LED. But instead it controls a cluster of 3 LEDs together. So that means that you cannot go below a granularity level of 3 LEDs to control them.

But on the other hand, WS2812 can control 1 LED each. So, if you need a control granularity of 1 LED, you should be going for WS2812 instead of WS2811.

WS2811 Vs WS2812 Difference In Power Consumption

As WS8211 operates at 12V, the amount of power consumed by it is significantly more. On the other hand, as WS8212 uses 5V, it can operate at a much lower power consumption.

WS2811 Vs WS2812 – Pros & Cons Of Each

WS8211 Pros

  • Operates at 12V. So it can control more number of LEDs in a strip.
  • Ease of use when dealing with mass LED controls.

WS8211 Cons

  • It cannot control lower than 3 LEDs at a time. So its lower granularity level of control lies at 3 LEDs.
  • Consumes significantly higher power because of 12V of operation.

WS8212 Pros

  • Can control single indiviudal LEDs.
  • LED control graularity lies at 1 LED.
  • Lower power consumption.

WS8212 Cons

  • As it operates at 5V, its voltage drop becomes significant as the number of LEDs in the strip increases.

Conclusion

So in conclusion, whether to choose WS2811 or WS2812 entirely depends upon the type of use cases you are dealing with. If you want to control a long LED strip then WS2811 is the obvious choice for you.

But on the other hand, if you want to control LEDs at the granular level of a single LED, then WS2812 is the option for you to go for.

So hope this article was helpful for you in understanding the WS2811 Vs WS2812 difference. If you still have any more questions in your mind, do let me know in the comments below and I will try to give you my best help.

So with that, I will end this article here. Until next time, take care and happy learning! 🙂

Categories
ELECTRONICS TUTORIALS

Series Vs Parallel Batteries – What Is The Difference?

If I give you two batteries and ask you to connect them together you have a decision to make. So what would that be? You need to decide on connecting them in Series Vs Parallel Batteries set up.

But what is the big deal in that, you ask? Well actually, it is a big decision to make! Why so?

Because, based on how you decide to connect the two batteries, I will get different amount of voltage and current.

Wait, what? Why is that the case?

To help you understand the reason behind it, I will first have to explain how a series vs parallel batteries connection is made. Alright? So let me start with that first!

Series Vs Parallel Batteries Connection

So let me first start by explaining how to connect the two batteries in series. Now, what I explain to you for the two batteries can be extended to more than that as well.

Does that make sense? Great!

So let us take a look at how two batteries connected in series.

How to connect batteries in series?

So in case of a series connection, we are going to connect the positive terminal of the first battery to the negative terminal of the second one.

Wait! What does that mean?

I know! It can get a little confusing when I say like that. So instead of me trying to explain it using more words, you better take a look at the pic below:

Series Vs Parallel Batteries - Series connection
Batteries in series connection

So when you look at the pic above, I guess it becomes clear. As you can see, we have connected the positive terminal of first battery to the negative terminal of the second one.

But this begs us the next question. What happens when we connect the batteries in this way i.e. in series?

So the answer to that question is as follows:

When we connect our batteries in a series connection, the voltage in the two batteries gets added together.

So now you know it!

But did you notice something here? This is the kind of connection we do in many of our every day electrical appliances. Guess where all you have seen this type of connection?

Here is where you would have seen batteries connected in series – Your TV remote, your torch, your alarm clock etc.

In each of these devices, we connect the positive terminal of a battery to the negative terminal another one. Do you agree with me here? It is true, right? 😉

So in each of these devices, you are increasing the voltage supply for your device. Right?

So that is how a series connection of batteries are made.

Now if this is clear, let us move on to our next type of connection. Are you ready? Great! Let us go then!

How to connect batteries in parallel?

In case of a parallel connection, we have similar type of terminals of each battery connected together. So what does that mean? It means that we connect every positive terminals of each of the battery together. In a similar way, we connect every negative terminals of the batteries together as well.

Still not clear on what I mean by that? Then take a look at this picture below:

Series Vs Parallel Batteries - Parallel connection
Batteries in Parallel connection

So as you can see above, we have connected the two positive terminals of the batteries together and two negative terminals together as well.

And that is how a parallel connection of batteries are made.

But how will connecting batteries in parallel benefits us?

So here is the thing. When you connect two batteries in parallel, the total amount of current we get out this rig up will be the sum of current from each batteries.

Wait what?

Well, what I meant is that by connecting the two batteries in parallel, the total current we get will be the sum of current from each of the batteries.

Alright! So then what about the voltage? Well, when batteries are connected in this parallel pattern, the voltage across the rig up remains the same.

Cool!

Summary of Series Vs Parallel Batteries

Batteries Connected In SeriesBatteries Connected In Parallel
Positive end of one battery will connect to negative end of the other.Positive end of one battery will connect to positive end of the other.
Final Voltage will be the sum of voltages of each individual batteries.Final Current will be the sum of voltages of each individual batteries.
Example Use – TV Remote, Alarm Clocks etc.Example Use – Power Banks (To increase the output capacity).

Conclusion

So those were the differences between connecting batteries in series or parallel. As you can see, each one of these connection types have their own advantages & disadvantages. So how you want to use it entirely depends on what is the purpose of usage.

So with that, I will end this article over here. If you have any more questions on this, do let me know in the comments below.

So until next time, take care! 🙂

If you are interested in Electronics, checkout this new Arduino hardware – Arduino Portenta

Categories
ELECTRONICS TUTORIALS

What Is An Atom? How Small Is It & What Is It Made Of?

So if you have studied science in your school, then the question What is an atom will be a basic one to ask, right? But yet here we are. Asking the very same question once again. Why?

It is because as simple as this question may seem to you, the underlying answer for it is not an easy one. Isn’t it?

But why so?

It is because an atom is something so small that we can not see it through our naked eyes. So what we cannot see, we cannot understand it easily.

What Is An Atom – Definition

But simply put,

An atom is the the smallest constituent of any matter.

What does this even mean? To understand this better,let us take a look at the following example.

Let me say I picked up a piece of graphite. Now as you know, a graphite is made up of Carbon element. So then I start breaking this graphite I picked up into smaller pieces. I will continue to break each of the smaller pieces into further smaller pieces.

So now at this point in time I will ask you this question. How far can I continue to break the graphite? What is the smallest form of graphite I can have?

Then answer for that is – I can break it down until I have only one atom of Graphite left!

So, that is what an atom is. It is the smallest particle of any matter.

But then what will happen if I continue to break the atom even further? The answer is, if you continue to break an atom, it will stop being that element.

Wait…what does that mean?

It simply means that if I break a Graphite atom further, it will stop being a Graphite element all together. It will turn into some other element!

So in other words, an atom is the smallest constituent of any element. If we try to break it any further, it stops being that element any more!

But why does an atom change into other element if broken further? To answer this, we first need to know how an atom looks like. So we will do just that!

What Is An Atom Made Up Of?

An atom, simply put is made up of 3 components:

  • Proton
  • Neutron &
  • Electron

But wait. Didn’t I just say an atom cannot be broken down any further. Then how did we get these 3 components, eh?

Yes, your question is valid. You see, I did not say an atom cannot be further broken down. But instead, what I said is that if you break it any further, it stops being that element.

Do you see the difference?

So in reality an atom can be broken down into protons, neutrons and electrons. But if you want to break it any further, you will have to start removing the total number of protons, electrons and neutrons in it.

But now, removing a few electrons or neutrons from an atom will not change the atom’s element. So if you remove even a single proton from it and you would have changed the element itself!

So this begs us to ask the next question:

What Is An Element?

An element is a substance that is made up of only one type of atom. So when you look at a Periodic Table – which lists all the elements you will find in the universe, you will find a total of 118 elements in it.

Now each of these elements differ from one another based on the number of Protons present in it. So as you can see, it is the number of protons that determine the type of element it is. And as a result, “number of Protons” in an element is so significant that it has its own tern for it – called the Atomic Number.

What Is An Atomic Number?

An atomic number is the total number of protons present in an element. It is represented by the symbol Z. So for example, Hydrogen has an atomic number of 1 (i.e. Z=1). So what it means is that an Hydrogen atom has one Proton in it!

So this calls for another question now. Take a look at the Periodic Table below:

Periodic Table
Periodic Table

Now answer this question for me:

What will happen if if I try to add one more proton into the Hydrogen atom?

As you can see in the periodic table, an Hydrogen atom has the atomic number 1. So it must be having 1 Proton in it. Now when I try to add another Proton to it, I am actually changing it’s atomic number to 2, right?

Then what is the element in the periodic table that has an atomic number of 2? Yep, you are right. It’s Helium!

So you changed a Hydrogen atom to an Helium atom by adding a proton to it! Pretty cool, eh! Feeling like God already?! 😉

So based on this, you now know that can turn an element into any other type of element by just adding or removing protons to it, right?

So then tell me this, how protons do you need to add to Hydrogen(H) atom to turn it into Gold (Au)? If you answered 78, then you are absolutely right!

So does that mean we can easily create Gold out of other elements? Unfortunately NO. This is what alchemists have been trying to do for a long time. But so far they have not succeeded in doing so! 🙁

What Is A Nucleus Of An Atom?

An atom as I told earlier is made up of Protons, Neutrons & Electrons. But how are they packed together inside an atom?

Well you see, an atom consists of a central core to it called a Nucleus. This is where Protons & Neutrons stay packed together. But on the other hand, Electrons are revolving around this nucleus at different orbit levels depending on the type of the element. So this calls for another question:

Why Electrons Revolve Around A Nucleus Of An Atom?

The answer to this is because both Electrons & Protons are electrically charged while Neutrons are neutral. An Electron is said to be negatively charged where as a proton is positively charged.

So as you know, like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. So, electrons are attracted towards the protons and try to fall into the nucleus.

On the other hand, protons which are in the nucleus tend to repel each other, but they are still together because of a force called strong nuclear force. The neutrons in the nucleus will also help the protons by being positioning themselves between two protons.

Can you see atoms through a microscope?

Err…NO, not really. But why?

That is because an atom is extremely small in size. It is so small that it measures just ten-millionth the size of a millimeter, as explained below.

What is the size of an atom?

The size of one single atom is about ten millionth the size of (1/1010) of a millimeter.

Or you can also say it as (1×10−8 cm).

Or it is sometimes even expressed as 100 picometer.

Now that is a number that is so small that we can not even perceive its size correctly. So for us to get a better scale of it, here is a little fodder to trigger your imagination.

Let us take a look at a scale ruler that we find in our geometry box. Here is how it looks like, right?

A scale ruler measuring in centimeters
A scale ruler measuring in centimeters

Now as shown in the pic above, the distance between two taller markings in this ruler is 1 cm. So then here is my question for you.

How many atoms can you fit in a straight line horizontally within this 1 cm space? Do you want to take a guess?

Well, here is your answer in the pic below:

Size of an atom visualized.
Size of an atom visualized.

So as you can see from the above image, we can stack up to 10,00,00,000 or 108 atoms in a row within a size of 1cm!

Now isn’t that something!

Conclusion

So this was just a basic introduction to what an atom is and how it looks like. There are many more concepts related to atom that we could not discuss here as the article started to grow too big. So I will be covering more about it in the future articles.

Learning about the fundamentals or basics of electricity is a must for someone who is trying to get into electronics using boards like Arduino or Raspberry Pi. So this article should have set you in the right direction to learn the basics of it.

Now if you still have any questions related to it, leave a comment below this article and I will try my best to answer them. Alright?

So until next time, take care and happy learning! 🙂

Categories
LIFESTYLE TUTORIALS

How Old Am I If I Was Born On April 2 1998

So you are born on April 2 1998 and now you want to check how old you are, right? Great! Then you have come to the right place. Because in this article, we will do just that!

Age If Born On April 2 1998
Age If Born On April 2 1998

But before take a look at how old you are, how about we see how you have fared so far when compared to other living beings on this planet? Would you not be interested in knowing about it?

Huh what? Why would I want to do that ever – you ask?

Well, we hear you loud and clear on that. But just bear with me for a minute here, OK? Let us run this simple thought experiment for a moment, just for the heck of hit.

Are you cool with that? Great! Then let us begin right away!

How Old Am I If I Was Born On April 2 1998?

Alright. So now is the time for us to first see how old you really are as of today. Are you ready? Here we go!

So if you are born on April 2 1998, your age as of today is as follows:

So what does this all mean? Well, it means that you have outlived the lifespan of all these animals and trees! So congratulations for you on this accomplishment!

But this is not all of it. Since you are born on April 2, you also happen to share your birthday with many celebrities such as Rodney King, Sophie Reylonds and Pascal Siakam.

Zodiac Sign For People Having Birthday On April 2

Since you are born on April 2, your Zodiac sign happens to be Aries. So you possess some of the typical traits of a Aries person. This includes being passionate, cheerful person. But you are also very relentless in your pursuit of whatever you set your eyes on!

So tell me, it does that sound something like you, Right?! 🙂