Categories
DATA MINING DATA SCIENCE DATA VISUALIZATION MACHINE LEARNING PROGRAMMING PYTHON TUTORIALS

How To Change Marker Color In Matplotlib

So in this article, we will learn how we can change the marker color in a Matplotlib plot. We will first see how we draw these markers and then see what we can do to change their colors.

Does that sound good? Great! Then let us start right away!

But before we start looking on how to change the Marker color of a plot, we need a plot. Right? But where do we get one?

Well, how about we make use of the plot we got from our previous article:

How To Change Marker Style In Matplotlib

That plot should be good enough. Right? So we will use just that!

Here is how the plot then looks like:

Change Marker Style In Matplotlib
Matplotlib plot with different marker styles

But what do we see here? We are seeing that each of the line marker in the plot already has different color. Right? But how did that happen? Who set the color for these markers?

Well the answer to that lies in the default behavior of the Matplotlib library. Because, even if we did not set those color, the library did it by itself. It made sure that each of the line markers got a different color.

That is cool! right? Because in that case, we will not have to worry about setting color ourselves. Isn’t it?

Well yes. That is true for most of the time. But there are times when we want to set the markers with a specific color. So having an option to change the marker color In Matplotlib is still needed. Right?

So then how can we do that? Well that is when the parameters of plot( ) function once again helps us! Here is how we can use it to change the marker color.

Change Marker Color In Matplotlib

So before we look at how to change the marker color in Matplotlib, let us look at current code. The code that is responsible for the plot created above. This is how that code looks like:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
x = range(1, 10)
plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x], '*')
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x], '+')
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x], '^')
plt.show()

So using the above code we got three sets of markers in the above plot, right? And each set had a different color set to it. But what if I want the triangle in the first set to be in the color of magenta?

Well, luckily we can do that! How? By passing our desired color value to the plot( ) function. So the code for that will then look like this:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
x = range(1, 10)
plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x], '*')
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x], '+')
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x], 'm^')
plt.show()

Notice the addition of the color value “m” to our third plt.plot( ) function call? That is what will do the trick for us! Here the alue “m” stands for the color “magenta”. This tells the plot( ) function to draw the triangles using magenta color!

So then how does our final plot look like then? Take a look at it for yourself!

Change Marker Color In Matplotlib
Change Marker Color In Matplotlib

So what do you see?!

As you can see, the color of the triangles have changed from green to magenta. And that is what we wanted. Right? ๐Ÿ˜‰

But then you must be asking what are all the available colors that you can use? Right? Well, they are the same set of colors that you used while changing line color in Matplotlib earlier! So it is quite easy then. Isn’t it?

So there you have it! That is how you change the marker color In Matplotlib. With this, I will end this article now. But if you have any questions, do let me know in the comments below.

So until next time, take care!

Categories
DATA MINING DATA SCIENCE DATA VISUALIZATION MACHINE LEARNING PROGRAMMING PYTHON TUTORIALS

How To Change Marker Style In Matplotlib

So in the previous article, we say how to change line style in Matplotlib. But in this article, we will take a look at how we can change the marker style in Matplotlib. So let us start with some idea about what these markers are in the first place. Shall we?

What Are Markers In Matplotlib Plots?

So for us to learn what markers are in Matplotlib plots, let us take a look at our previous example. Alright? Show this is the plot that we had in our previous example:

An example Matplotlib plot with 3 lines drawn from 3 sets of data
An example Matplotlib plot with 3 lines drawn from 3 sets of data

So as you can see here, we have 3 lines drawn using Matplotlib. Right? But how did we get these lines in the first place? Any guess?

To understand that, we need to take a look at the piece of code that generated this plot. So here is what that code looks like:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
x = range(1, 10)
plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x], '-.')
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x], '--')
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x], ':')
plt.show()

So as you can see, the three lines we have plotted are drawn using these 3 lines of code:

plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x], '-.')
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x], '--')
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x], ':')

And what is the data set used to plot these lines? There are 3 sets of data and they are:

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
[2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20]
[3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30]

So as you can see, the three data sets shown above is what resulted in the 3 lines above.

But here is the thing. The lines that we have drawn in the plot are nothing but connections to these points. Right?

So in Matplotlib, we call these points as Markers and the lines joining them as Segments.

Aha! Now you know what these markers are, right? But there is another important thing you should notice here. The plot we have in the above pic is made up of both Markers & Segments. So the above Matplotlib plot has both Markers & Segments in it!

Woah..! We didn’t knew that the plot had markers in it right? But where is it then? Why can’t we see it?

Well it is because the markers in this plot are drawn using their default style and hence it is not clearly visible. Wait, what is the default style of a marker then?

What Is The Default Style Of A Marker In Matplotlib Plot?

The default style of a Matplotlib Marker is to draw it as a point. And this is the reason why we are not able to see it. Because we are then connecting them by lines!

But then this begs us the next question:

What can we do to make the markers in Matplotlib visible?

So how are we going to show clearly then? Well, the answer to that once again lies in the parameters we pass to the plot( ) function.

Wait, so how will that look like then?

Well, instead of using the plot( ) function to draw default markers and lines, we do something else. We will ask Matplotlib not to use default markers and also not to draw the lines!

So then, how will that code look like? Well, take a look at it yourself!

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
x = range(1, 10)
plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x], '*')
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x], '+')
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x], '^')
plt.show()

So when we run this piece of code, what do you think will the plot look like? Any guess?

Change Marker Style In Matplotlib
Change Marker Style In Matplotlib

Woah! Where did this nice little plot come from?! How did we get those cool looking stars and triangles in the plot? Huh?!

How To Change Marker Styles In Matplotlib

Well here the thing. When we used the marker style ‘*’, ‘+’ and ‘^’ symbol in our code, it got translated to that. Now that is one nice little feature that Matplotlib library is giving to us. Right?

So how do we know what all Marker styles are made available to us by Matplotlib then?

Well that is when this nifty table below will help you out! Take a look at it. It is showing you all the marker styles you can draw on your Python plot to make it look pretty!

Marker SymbolMarker Style
^Triangle Up
vTria. Down
<Triangle Left
>Tria. Right
1Tripod Down
2Tripod Up
3Tripod Left
4Tripod Right
pPentagon
sSquare
hHexagon
HRoated Hexagon
*Star
+Plus
Horizontal
DDiamond
dLean diamond
|Vertical Line
Available Marker Styles To Draw Using Matplotlib

And this is how you can get some nice little pretty plots using Matplotlib Python library. So I hope this was quite easy to understand for you. But if you still have any questions around it, do let me know. Because I will be more than happy to help! ๐Ÿ™‚

Categories
DATA MINING DATA SCIENCE DATA VISUALIZATION MACHINE LEARNING PROGRAMMING PYTHON TUTORIALS

How To Change Line Style In Matplotlib

If you have been working with Matplotlib to plot lines, you might be looking for how you can style lines. Right? So if that is the case, they you have come to the right place. Because in this article, we will learn how to change line style in Matplotlib.

But before we do that, I hope you already know how to plot multiple lines on Matplotlib. But if you do not know, then take a look at the article linked above. That should get you going. Alright?

Okay then. With that, it is time for us to get started on changing the style of our lines now! Are you ready?

Drawing Multiple Lines Using Matplotlib

So as I said in the earlier section, we first need to have the code to draw multiple lines. Here is that code we have from our earlier article:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
x = range(1, 10)
plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x])
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x])
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x])
plt.show()

So this is the same piece of code we have taken from our earlier article. When we run this code, we get the following output:

Matplotlib multiple lines same graph
Drawing Multiple Lines Using Matplotlib

So as you can see from the above pic, we have 3 different lines plotted on the same graph. But what is even more important is that all these lines are in different color. That is good. Right?

But what we want to do now is to change the line style in this Matplotlib output. Correct? So how do we go abut doing that?

How To Change Line Style In Matplotlib?

With the basic multi line plot ready, let us now see how we can change the style of these lines.

So how do we go about doing this? Any guess? I want you to think a little bit to see if you can make a guess before you look for the answer. Alright? Just take a minute or two to think it over before you read further.

Okay. Here is what we can do to change the line style that we draw using Matplotlib:

Just like we could change the color of our lines ourselves, we can also change the style of these lines. So how did we change the color of our lines using Matplotlib to what we want, earlier? Yes, we passed in a new parameter to our plot( ) function. Right?

So in the same way, we can change the line style in Matplotlib as well. By passing our desired style as a parameter to our plot( ) function!

So how does that look like? Well, we just need to pass in the style we want as another plot( ) function parameter. So we modify our code in the plt.plot( ) function as shown below:

plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x], '-.')
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x], '--')
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x], ':')

So what happens when you do that? You have just changed the line style of the plots. So here is how it now looks like:

Change Line Style In Matplotlib by passing in the style as a parameter to the plot() function.
Change Line Style In Matplotlib by passing in the style as a parameter to the plot() function.

Now that looks like a perfect plot, isn’t it? But this begs us to ask the next question:

What Are The Options Available To Change The Line Style In Matplotlib

So there are 4 line styles that Matplotlib provides us to choose from. They are:

Style SymbolStyle Type
Solid Line
Dashed Line
-.Dash Dot Line
:Dotted Line
4 line styles available for us to choose from in Matplotlib

So if you choose from any one of these styles, you can get some pretty looking plots out there!

Conclusion

So that is all there is to changing the line style of a Matplotlib plot! You just have to add a new parameter to the plot( ) function with the style information. That is it and then it just works!

Pretty easy way to achieve what we want then, right? ๐Ÿ˜‰ That is the beauty of Matplotlib library. It has so many interesting features with such a simple API!

So then what does our final code look like? Here it is:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
x = range(1, 10)
plt.plot(x, [xi*1 for xi in x], '-.')
plt.plot(x, [xi*2 for xi in x], '--')
plt.plot(x, [xi*3 for xi in x], ':')
plt.show()

So with that, I will end this article now. But if you still have any questions, do let me know in the comment below. I will be more than happy to help! Alright?

So until next time, take care guys and gals out there! Have a great day! ๐Ÿ™‚

Categories
ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED TUTORIALS

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) & How Does It Work?

So in this article, we will take a look at what a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is. But we will not stop just at that. Because we will also learn how an LDR works.

Now if you are some one who is getting into electronics, this will be very helpful for you. But if you are someone who has already worked with electronics, this will still be helpful to read. Why? Because we will be going through this sensor step by step. In detail.

So give yourself some time to read it all. Because this will get you to know everything there is to know about LDR. Alright? Cool, then let us get started!

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) Sensor?

To answer this, we must first take a look at what a sensor is and what it does. Because only when we know why we use them in general, can we look at LDR in particular. Does that make sense? Great! So let us start with that.

What is a sensor?

A sensor is a device that we use in our electronics to measure a physical quantity. But why do we need to use these sensors? Because they can sense any change in these physical quantity and convert it into electrical signal.

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor
What Is A Light Dependent Resistor

Wait, that was quite a mouthful to read. Right? But what does it really mean?

So to put it in simple words, a sensor is a type of device that can convert a physical quantity to an electrical signal. It is as simple as that!

Okay. Now that makes sense. But why do we need them in our circuits?

Why do we use sensors?

So here is why we need them – Just think about some sensual thing you can feel. Can you tell me some of them that you feel on a daily basis? Yes, there are these things like smell, sound, weather etc. that our body can feel, right? But what if we wanted our electronics to sense that too? How can we make that happen?

So that is when these sensors will come into picture!

We can use sensors for smell, sound etc. And one such sensor is the Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) sensor! But what does an LDR sensor do?

What Is A Light Dependent Resistor and What Does It Do?

A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is a sensor whose resistance will change with the changing temperature. It is as simple as that!

So how does this LDR work? What is it made up of? Let us answer these queries now.

How Does A Light Dependent Resistor Work?

A light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is made of those materials which has these unique properties – In darkness, these materials do not conduct electricity but will do so when there is light falling on them!

So as a result, you can say that they have high resistance when it is dark but have low resistance when light falls on them!

Alright! So that is the principle behind the working of an LDR. But then this begs us to ask our next question:

What is the range of resistance of an LDR?

So as you know by now, the resistance of an LDR changes between darkness & when in light. But what is this range? How much of a resistance change is happening here?

So the answer is, it fluctuates between 100 Ohms to 1M Ohm!

So that is quite a big change, isn’t it? And that is why we can use this sensor for increasing or decreasing the flow of current to a circuit based on light!

So there you go! That is all there is for you to know about a Light Dependent Resistor. But if you have any more questions about it, do let me know in the comments below. I will be more than happy to help!

With that being said, I will end this article now! I hope you have a great day! ๐Ÿ™‚

Categories
ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED TUTORIALS

PT100 Temperature Sensor Table & How To Use It

In this article, we will be taking a look at the PT100 Temperature Sensor Table. So using this table, we can see how the resistance of PT100 changes with temperature.

But before we do that, we first need to know what a PT100 temperature sensor is and how it works. Right? Because having a clear idea about what this sensor is will help us know how to use it. Does that make sense? Great! Then let us start from there!

What Is PT100 Temperature Sensor?

PT100 temperature sensor is a sensor that that is made from Platinum. But what does it do? Well, we can use PT100 sensor to measure the temperature around it. So in a way, it can act like a thermometer!

Wait a second. How does a sensor made of Platinum work as a thermometer?

How does it work?

So here is the thing. A pure metal like platinum has a unique feature in that it’s resistance increases with an increase in temperature. So by just measuring the resistance across it, we can map it to it’s corresponding temperature!

Now that sounds great right? Because now just my checking the resistance of this sensor, we can tell what the temperature is. How cool is that!

But why does the Platinum behave this way? What makes it change its resistance based on the temperature?

Well, to answer this question, we need to know a little bit of the chemical structure of Platinum.

First thing first, we need to know that Platinum is a pure metal. Because of this, an electric current can flow easily through it. Alright?

So everything should work fine when you are passing current through it then, right? Well, not really!

Why? Because this free flow of electrons in Platinum is affected by the temperature around it.

You see, a metal like Platinum is made up of crystals. And these crystals starts vibrating as the temperature increases. So this increase in vibration in turn will slow down the flow of electrons!

So there you have it! This is the reason why Platinum will conduct less current as temperature increases.

So PT100 temperature sensor that is built using Platinum will take advantage of this feature. And hence, we can use it to measure resistance across it to determine the temperature!

Now that is a very nifty way to take advantage of this feature right? I mean you are measuring temperature around you by just checking resistance of a sensor. How cool is that!

So now that we know how a PT100 temperature sensor works, it is time for us to look at the PT100 Temperature Sensor Table.

What Is A PT100 Temperature Sensor Table

So as we learnt, PT100 temperature sensor’s resistance increases with increase in temperature. Right? So just by measuring the resistance across it, we can tell what the temperature around it is. Right?

But what is the formula we need to use to convert a resistance to temperature? That is when the temperature sensor table comes in handy!

So simply put, this PT100 temperature sensor table will help us map between a resistance value and it’s respective temperature. No formula required then! That is great right.

So how does this PT100 temperature sensor table look like then? Well, take a look at it for yourself:

Temperature (In Degree Celsius)Resistance (In Ohms)
-20018.52
-10060.26
0100
100138.5
200175.85
300212.05
400247.10
500281
600313.72
700345.29
800375.71
850390.49
PT100 Temperature Sensor Table

So as you can see, there is a simple mapping between the temperature and resistance. You can then use this table as a reference to measure the current temperature across a PT100 sensor.

But before we go, did you notice one important thing in the PT100 Temperature Sensor Table? Can you spot it?

PT100 Temperature Sensor Table
PT100 Temperature Sensor Table Image File

So if you did find that the resistance is at 100 Ohms when the temperature is at zero degree Celsius, then yes! You got hat right!

Now that is an important feature of the Pt100 temperature sensor. So its resistance is always at 100 Ohms when it is working at a temperature of 0 degree centigrade. It is a good thing to keep that in mind when working with this sensor!

Conclusion

So there you have it. Because that is all there is for you to know about PT100 sensor.

But if you still have any questions about it, do let me know in the comment section below and I will be happy to help!

So with that, I will end this article now. Have a great day you all! ๐Ÿ™‚

Categories
ELECTRONICS TUTORIALS

What Is Leakage Current? How To Stop It?

So if you have been reading about electrical equipment, you might have come across the term “leakage current”. But what is this leakage current? Do you know how it is caused and what steps you can take to prevent it? If you are not sure, do not worry! Because we will be answering these questions here in this article.

But before we do that, let us just start with learning about a few basic things. Alright? Because without an idea about these, it will be difficult for us to get our head around what leakage current is. Okay? Does that make sense? Great! So then here we go!

If you take a look at any electrical equipment, you will find a few important components in it. So this is irrespective of what this device is or what it does. It will for sure have these components in them. So what we are talking about are those generic components that you will for sure see in any electrical equipment. Now what are they?

What Is  A leakage Current?

Any electrical equipment will have a power supply, electrodes, conductors & insulators in them.

Learn what is the difference between conductors & insulators

Wait a second, an electrical equipment having conductors is fine. But why do we need insulators? Can you take a guess?

We use insulators in those areas where we do not want electric current to flow through! Now where will that be? It is usually those areas where the user would touch the equipment, right? But not just that, equipment uses insulators even inside the circuitry where we do not want current to flow.

Alright, very well. But what has that got to do with the leakage of current? Well, there is a strong connection between them. Let me explain it to you!

What Is Leakage Current?

So what does a leakage current got to do with insulator? Well, one of the main reason we use insulator is to prevent current from flowing through it right? But the thing is, even a strong insulator can let some amount of current to flow through it.

And this is only going to increase with an increase in voltage. Also, there comes a point in voltage called the breakdown voltage where an insulator will lose all it’s properties and just allow current to flow through it.

Now this type of current flow is not happening by design, right? It is something that we do not want. But still happening. So you can say that this is non functional current. Or just unwanted current in simple words. This is what is called a leakage current.

So in other words, we can define leakage current as:

Any current that is not flowing by the design and non functional is called a leakage current

So this is what a leakage current is in terms of an electrical equipment. But is that all there is to it? I mean does it happen only due to insulator breakdown? Well actually NO!

Why Does It Happen?

It can happen due to any of the following reasons:

  • Break down of insulator properties due to break down voltage.
  • Breakdown of capacitors in trying to block DC current. This happens due to an impure dielectric material used in a capacitor. As a result, some amount of DC current will continue to flow even after power is removed from the device.
  • Reverse leakage current in a diode due to semiconductor impurities.

How Can we Prevent It?

Now that we know what a leakage current is and why it occurs, it is time to see how we can prevent it. So what are the best ways we can avoid it? Well, the simple and easiest thing to do is to detect the deterioration of the components that causes it.

So what does that mean? It means to detect any leakage current happening and replacing the parts that are causing it. But then we have this next question. How can we detect it? Is there an easy way to do it? Can anyone do it?

And the answer for this is, YES! There is an easy way to detect leakage current. How? By using a leakage current detector!

What Is A Leakage Current Detector?

A leakage current detector is a device that we can use to see if there is any leakage current in a device. So you can say that it is a type of leakage current tester.

Now there are many types of leakage current testers out there. So it needs its own article which I will be writing soon. But just know that using these leakage current testers, we can find any leakages and then fix it!

Sometimes these testers are also called as Megger.

Why Should We Prevent A Current Leakage?

Now that we know how we can detect the leakage of current we should ask ourselves why we do want to prevent it?

Well the are many reasons why we want to prevent it from happening. But here are some of the important reasons for it:

  • A leakage current can be dangers as it can get you electrocuted!
  • In a handheld device running on battery, leakage current can drain your battery quickly.
  • Any leakage current is just wasted current. This is just waste of resources.
  • Leakage current can result in device heating up quickly & frequently.

So there you have it. A brief introduction of what it is, why it is caused and how you can prevent it. With this, I will end this article here and continue on this topic in a future article again. But in the mean time if you have any questions, do let me know in the comment below!

So until next time, have a great day! ๐Ÿ™‚

Categories
SCIENCE TUTORIALS

Difference Between Insulator and Conductor

So in this article, we will be taking a look at the differences between a conductor and an insulator. But before we do that, we should first know what a conductor and an insulator is, right? Because without knowing what they are in the first place, learning about the differences between them does not make much sense, right?isn’t it So, let us start from there!

But there is one little thing you need to know before that! And that is to know about what an atom is, alright? So if you are still not familiar with what an atom is and what it looks like, take a look at my earlier article:

What Is An Atom? How Small Is It & What Is It Made Of?

So with that out of the way, let us start with what a conductor is.

What Are Electrons?

So when you read about atom, you got to know that it has protons, neutrons & electrons right? It is this electron that will be the focus of this article today!

So what are these electrons in an atom? What do they do? We will first answer these questions, alright?

So an atom has both positively charged particle called protons and negatively charged particle called electrons. But the main thing to know is that the proton is at the center of the atom called the nucleus. While the electrons are revolving around this nucleus.

So in a way, an atom looks something like this:

Difference Between Insulator and Conductor - Inside Of An Atom
Difference Between Insulator and Conductor – Inside Of An Atom

So as you can see from the above pic, the nucleus (which is in pink) is at the center of an atom. While the electrons (which are in yellow) are revolving around it.

So this is how an atom look like. But how is this related to our talk on conductors and insulators, you ask?

What Is Electricity

So the thing is, it is these revolving electrons that are the reason for flow of electricity in any material. But not just that. In fact, electricity is nothing but the flow of these electrons.

Wait what? How does that work?

So here is what is happening. The electrons in an atom revolve around the nucleus at different orbits. Why? Because each of these orbits can have only a certain number of electrons in them.

So the inner most orbit of an atom can only have a maximum of 2 electrons around it. This is true for any element in the nature. So anything more than that will need to take up the next orbit. And every orbit after the inner most orbit can only take up to 8 electrons in them!

As a result, as the number of orbits increases, the distance between electrons and nucleus also increases. So that makes sense, right? The electrons in the outermost orbits are far away from the nucleus compared to the inner most orbit. So this means that the outer most electrons are less attracted towards the nucleus.

But that is not all. As I said earlier, an orbit can take only up to 8 electrons in them. But if there are less than 8 electrons in an orbit, the electrons in them will try to leave the atom itself!

Woah! But why would it do that?!

Atoms & Molecules

Because an atom is stable only when they have 2 electrons in the inner orbit & 8 in outer orbits. Anything less than that and they become unstable. So at that point in time, the atom will try to stabilize itself by attaching itself to another atom that can provide it with the missing electron. And this is how molecules are formed!

But why are we talking about all this here when we were to look at the difference between a conductor and an insulator? Because they are all connected!

How? Let me explain!

What Are Valence Electrons?

So as I said, the electrons in the outer most orbit are usually unstable. So they are always looking to bond with other atoms. Or move away from their orbit as they are loosely connected to the atom. So these electrons in the outer most orbits have a special name. They are called valence electrons.

The thing about these valence electrons is that they are highly vulnerable. So much so that we will only need to apply a little bit of energy to push them out of their orbit. And when that happens, electrons will release from the atom and start moving to other atoms around it.

But do you know what happens when these electrons start moving around other atoms in a material? Yes, that is when electricity starts flowing in that material! That is exactly what an electric current is. It is the flow of electrons!

So then here is the next question. Do all elements have same number of valence electrons?

The answer is NO! Not all elements have the same number of valence electrons in them. Because some of them have a lot of them while others do not.

So what does this mean? Well, this is the main difference between a conductor and an insulator!

Main Difference Between A Insulator And Conductor

Those elements that have a lot of valence electrons in them need just a little energy to get the electrons to flow. These elements are called the conductors!

While those elements that need a lot of energy to push valence electrons out of their shell are called insulators!

Now you know the main difference between a conductor and an insulator. But is that all there is to it? Definitely no. There are a lot more differences between them than this. But this is the primary difference.

So what are the other differences then? We will list them in the table below:

Other Differences Between A Conductor And Insulator

ConductorInsulator
Electrons flow easily through themElectrons does not flow easily through them
As temperature increases, their resistance to flow of electrons also increaseResistance to flow of electrons remain constant
It has small band gap. So only a little amount of energy is required to excite an electronIt has a large band gap. So lot of energy required to excite an electron
Eg: Copper, Bronze, Gold, IronEg: Paper, Wood, Rubber, Plastic
Conductor Vs Insulator comparision table

So this is it. These are the main differences between a conductor and an insulator. In the future articles, we will discuss more about the electricity including voltage, current and power. But for now, this should give you a good idea about the differences.

So with that, I will end this article here. But if you have any questions about it, do ask me in the comments below. So until next time, take care! ๐Ÿ™‚

Categories
DOWNLOAD ELECTRONICS SMARTPHONES TOOLS

Google Chrome Alternative For Android In 2020

If you are looking for a Google Chrome alternative web browser for Android, then look no further! Because in this article, we will take a look at Samsung Internet! It is one of the best web browser for Android in 2020.

But before we do that let us ask ourselves a few basic questions first. Alright?

Why Google Chrome Alternative?

Most of us are happy with the default Google Chrome browser that comes on Android smartphones these days. But for some, it just does not cut it. Why? Because Google Chrome is a memory hungry application and its up a lot of RAM.

But why is that the case?

Why does Google Chrome need a lot of memory?

The reason why Google Chrome need a lot of RAM is because it views each tab as a separate process in the OS. So by doing so, even if one of the website in the browser tab crashes, its fine. It does not crash the entire Google Chrome browser app itself!

So to achieve this capability, it needs to run each tab as a separate process in the OS. But as a side-effect of this, it needs a lot of RAM!

But Why Wanting A Lot Of RAM Is A Problem?

It becomes a problem because your smartphone runs many apps simultaneously. So all these apps will be fighting to get as much memory as possible. And since the amount of RAM in a smartphone is fixed, it can cause problems.

So if you have noticed a message like “App is not responding” when you are using your Android phone, this is the reason!

Okay, now that we know the problem of shortage of memory, how do we fix it?

Samsung Internet - The Google Chrome Alternative Web Browser
Samsung Internet – The Google Chrome Alternative Web Browser

So if you are using a smartphone with small amount of RAM like say 1GB or 2GB, then you may have this problem. But there is a simple solution tot his problem as well.

You just need to find an alternative browser to Google Chrome in that case!

Which Is The Best Google Chrome Alternative For Android In 2020?

The answer is – Samsung Internet browser!

Samsung Internet is hands-down the best alternative to Google Chrome we have seen so far! Why is that so? We will tell you the reason below!

What is Samsung Internet?

Samsung Internet is a free, built-in web browser that offers users a simple, private and secure Internet experience. So you can use it for all you web browsing needs without any problem. Be it banking, browsing the web or playing videos, it can handle them all.

Where can I download Samsung Internet?

Downloading this browser is quite easy. If you are on Android, Samsung Internet is available on the Google Play Store. So you can download it from there.

Can I install Samsung Internet on an iPhone?

No, you cannot use it on an iPhone because it is not available on the Apple store.

What rendering engine does Samsung Internet use?

Samsung Internet is based on Chromium, the open source web browser engine. Because of this, Samsung Internet uses the same rendering engine as Chrome.

Is Samsung Internet better than Google Chrome?

Samsung Internet is better than Google Chrome in may fronts – Because it has a faster start-up speed and a more intuitive user interface, it is quite slick to use!

Which is the best web browser for Android?

However, having said that – Google Chrome is still the best web browser for Android. It is the most popular browser on Android, with over 1 billion users worldwide.

Why should I use Samsung Internet over Google Chrome on Android?

While Google Chrome is the most popular web browser for Android, there are issues with it. Because some of the smartphones cannot handle Google Chrome properly and freezes frequently. So for those who are suffering this issue, we think that Samsung Internet is a better alternative for them.

Why is Samsung Internet a better Google Chrome alternative?

Samsung Internet is one of the best web browser for Android. It is the default browser for Galaxy smartphones. Samsung Internet is designed for the best mobile web experience.

How is Samsung Internet on Android better?

Samsung Internet is the default browser on Samsung Galaxy smartphones, and it is a lightweight browser with powerful features. It is also one of the best browsers on Android, because it has good speed, a good user experience, and supports WebVR as well!

Can I use Samsung Internet on any Android phone?

Yes, you can! Since Samsung Internet is available on the Google Playstore so you can download and install it on any compatible Android smartphone.

Conclusion

So there you have it. Those were some of the reasons why we think Samsung Internet is the best alternative to google Chrome on Android in 2020. But if you have any more questions on it, do let us know in the comments below. We will be more than happy to help!

So until next time, have a great day! ๐Ÿ™‚

Want to know how to use your web browser as a notepad? Check this out!

Categories
ELECTRICAL SCIENCE HARDWARE TUTORIALS

Difference Between Screen Tearing & Ghosting

In this article, we will learn the difference between screen tearing and ghosting. But I think before we do that, we should look at what each of these terms even means. Why it happens and how we can fix it. Because knowing what is happening at the fundamental level is how we can really fix things. Right? So in short, we are applying the first principle method here!

So are you ready to learn all there is to know about screen tearing and ghosting? Great! Then let’s get started!

Screen Tearing & Ghosting

What is Ghosting?

So let us start with Ghosting. What is it? Ghosting is a phenomenon in display screens. It happens when a part of the screen is not updated in time, or the color of the part is not consistent with the rest of the screen.

An example of Ghosting & Screen tearing
An example of Ghosting & Screen tearing

Because of this, a fast-moving object will leave a trail of its previous position on the display. So in other words, you can say that it happens when a single image is displayed for a long time. Sounds good?

Why Ghosting occurs?

But why does ghosting even happen? Well, there are many reasons for ghosting, such as the refresh rate of the screen is too low, the quality of the screen is bad, the angle of the screen is too large, the color of the screen is not consistent with the color of the back light.

So in general, it happens whenever a device is unable to render a fast-moving image properly.

But the most common cause of Ghosting is due to the wrong choice of display parameters, such as the refresh rate is too high, or the response time is too long.

How to fix ghosting?

So how can we fix it? To answer that, we need to first know this – Display ghosting is caused by the human eye’s persistence of vision, and the longer the display time, the more likely the ghosting will occur.

So in other words, if we look at something for a long time, we tend to retain its shape and size in our eyes as an imprint. So the easy way out of this is to change the things we see at a rapid pace!

The ghosting can be reduced by increasing the refresh rate of the display, or by reducing the brightness of the screen.

What Is A Screen Refresh Rate?

Wait, we talked about screen refresh rate in the previous paragraph. But what does that even mean?

The screen refresh rate is the number of times in one second that a display screen can completely redraw the image. The screen refresh rate is measured in Hertz (Hz). So higher the screen refresh rate, the more smoothly animations and movements appear. And as we read earlier, this also means we will not see ghosting anymore!

That kind of makes sense then right? But then comes my next question.

What should be the minimum screen refresh rate for smooth output?

So I went around looking for a decent value at which I should set my screen’s refresh rate. And guess what? The recommended screen refresh rate for smooth output is 60Hz. So this begs the next question for me.

What is the screen refresh rate of an LED TV?

The refresh rate of an LED TV is usually 120Hz. So this is what I found after looking at many latest LED TV specifications!

Is screen refresh rate of 120Hz good?

So then which refresh rate is really good for me? Should I set it at 60 Hz or 120Hz? Any guess?

Now if you said 120Hz, then you are right! But why? Read on to know the reason behind it!

At 120Hz, The frames are drawn at 120 frames per second. This is a huge improvement from 60Hz where only 60 frames are drawn per second. So a screen refresh rate of 120Hz is really good, as it can make the screen look very smooth and it is not easy to see the screen is flickering.

Okay then! 120Hz it is!

But here is the thing. As I continued to browse around the topic of refresh rate, I came across this other phenomenon called screen tearing! What even is this now?!

What is screen tearing?

As I looked around to find what it is, I learnt this:

Screen tearing is a graphical artifact in video games and computer graphics. It occurs when the frame rate of a video display does not match the rate of display updates from the computer graphics card.

Alright, very well! So now I have two things to worry about when displaying things on a screen. And here comes my next question – ladies and gentlemen!

What is the difference between screen tearing & ghosting?

Screen tearing is a phenomenon that occurs when the monitor is not in sync with the graphics card. Hmm…so it is not a problem with the display, but a problem with the way the graphics card is outputting the image.

But on the other hand, ghosting is a problem with the display itself. So they are indeed two different problems. But of course, the difference is very subtle from an end user’s point of view! Right?

How to fix screen tearing & ghosting?

So the bottom line is, both screen tearing and ghosting happens due to bad refresh rate of the display. But this refresh rate goes bad at both the display frame buffer side as well as the GPU side. So by fixing this refresh rate, things must get back to normal!

Aha! What an elegant solution to each of these problems!

But where do we see ghosting & screen sharing?

Well the answer is, pretty much on every mobile phone! Be it a gaming smartphone like Asus ROG Phone 3 or your granny’s old feature phone. This is a problem that can happen on any device with a screen and capable of drawing graphics on it!

Categories
COMPUTER HARDWARE ELECTRONICS REVIEWS SMARTPHONES TUTORIALS

Asus ROG Phone 3 Review & Specification

The Asus ROG Phone 3 is the third and latest iteration of the ROG Phone series of gaming smartphones from Asus. It is an upgrade over the ROG Phone 2, and is geared toward serious gamers.

Why are we reviewing the Asus ROG Phone 3?

The ROG Phone 3 features a very high-end processor, along with a large display and a lot of RAM. It also features a very unique design that differentiates itself from other gaming smartphones on the market.

The Asus ROG Phone 3 has a lot going on in the spec sheet. So We’re going to take it in bits and pieces to get through it all. Sounds good? Great! Then let us begin the review!

Asus ROG Phone 3 Feature Review

What is the physical size of ROG Phone 3?

The ROG Phone is an Android smartphone that is 9.9mm thick and weighs 240g, which is pretty hefty for a phone with a 6.5-inch display. This gives the device a screen-to-body ratio of just above 78.2%, which is on the lower side of the spectrum, but not that bad.

Asus ROG Phone 3 Review
Asus ROG Phone 3 Review

When it comes to it’s dimensions, the ROG Phone measures at 171.0 x 78.0 x 9.9mm, which is not too big, not too small. It has a rather unique design, which resembles the new HTC U12+ and even the Razer Phone 2. But most importantly, it is comfortable to hold in our hand and easy to use!

What kind of display does this phone use?

The Asus ROG Phone 3 features a 6.59-inch AMOLED display with a resolution of 1080 x 2340 pixels and an aspect ratio of 19.5:9. But talking about the display PPI, it also has a pixel density of 391 pixels-per-inch.

While the ROG Phone 3 has a 19.5:9 aspect ratio, the AMOLED display itself is curved on all four sides, and has an overall screen-to-body ratio of 79.9%.

It also comes with HDR10+ support, which should be good enough for most. However, one missing feature is that it doesn’t support Adaptive-Sync. But it can display up to 90% of the DCI-P3 color gamut.

Additionally, the display has a refresh rate of 144Hz, which is extremely high, so the animation is smooth and there’s no lag whatsoever.

How Good Is ROG Phone 3 For Gaming?

If you’re into gaming, then you will really appreciate the added refresh rate. The high refresh rate will give gamers an edge over their competitors as there will be no lag and input lag is less noticeable.It is also a low-persistence panel, which helps cut down on ghosting when moving between frames.

What is Ghosting?
Ghosting is a phenomenon that occurs when the display does not completely refresh, causing a moving image to leave a faint, lingering image behind.
It is caused by slow response time, and can occur in CRT monitors, plasma displays, and LCDs.

It also means there will be no screen tearing.

What is screen tearing?
Screen tearing is a graphical issue in video display systems in which a display device shows information from multiple frames in a single screen draw. It occurs when the graphics chip and the display screen cannot sync up with their display refresh rates, causing parts of two or more different frames to be shown on the screen at the same time.

There’s a special technology that also helps improve the experience. The display is also protected by Corning Gorilla Glass 6. Asus claims that it is one of the brightest displays at 650 nits. The company also mentions that it has a 10,000:1 contrast ratio.

Which processor does the Asus ROG Phone 3 use?

The new Asus ROG Phone 3 uses the Qualcomm Snapdragon 865+ chipset, the latest from Qualcomm and the successor to the Snapdragon 845.

This gaming smartphone may not be the worldโ€™s first to be powered by the Snapdragon 865+ chipset, but it has the fastest clock speed of 1.9 GHz on a 7 nm process.

So let us talk about what is inside this processor now, alright?

To begin with, the SoC comes with a new set of Kryo 585 cores and an Adreno 650 graphics unit. It’s an octa-core chipset with one 3.1 GHz Kryo 585 Gold CPU and three 2.42 GHz Kryo 585 Silver CPUs, plus a four 1.8 GHz Kryo 585 CPU.

But it doesn’t just end there! Because the Snapdragon 865+ is also an SoC that comes with a separate core to handle the artificial intelligence (AI) workload. In addition to that, we can also see tht comes with a new NPU for faster AI performance.

Since there’s a good amount of RAM and the ROG Phone 3 should be able to handle pretty much anything you throw at it, although it does get warm when you push it to the limit!

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

But the real juice for this smartphone which is designed specfically for gaming, lies in it’s graphic power. So naturally, you will be looking for what that looks like, Right? So here we go!

The ROG Phone 3 has an Adreno 650 GPU built into it. So what does that mean? It means that it is having better graphics that is also capable of HDR gaming! This makes the ROG Phone 3 a solid choice for mobile gamers.

But having said that, let us now talk on the software side!

This smartphone runs the latest version of Android 10 with the ROG UI on top of it.

But how does this perform?

Well, for one we found it to be incredibly powerful and the ROG UI offers so much customization that it’s a bit overwhelming. But also the gaming-focused interface is really slick and very fast!

But what about the storage?

So Yeah! I can hear you screaming in my ears asking this question. How does the memory part of this smartphone looks like.

Since this is a smartphone designed for gaming, you want it to have good memory space right? Well, we are happy to say that this smartphone doesn’t dissapoint you in that area! Because here is how it looks like:

Asus ROG Phone 3 has a memory of 128 GB of internal storage with 12 GB of RAM, 256 GB with 12 GB RAM, 512 GB with 12 GB RAM, and 512 GB with 16 GB RAM.

The flash storage is based on the latest storage technology – UFS 3.1. Asus has chosen to go with 128GB of internal storage as it’s base class and has not opted for the microSD card expansion slot. A trend that we are seeing in more and more phones these days for better or worse!

Let us talk about Camera!

If there is one thing that delights non gamers about this phone for sure, it has to be the camera!

But why? Because I see that this smartphone comes with a myriad of sensors that will work for every occassion! Hmm…not sure what I mean? Well take a look at it’s specs for yourself then!

The ROG Phone comes with a triple-camera setup on the back. The primary one is the 64-megapixel sensor while the secondary one is a 13-megapixel sensor with a 125-degree field of view and a gyro-EIS module. Finally the third one is a 5-megapixel depth sensor.

But it doesn’t end there. Because this triple camera setup comes with a dual-LED flash as well.

Front Camera

On the front side, the ROG Phone also comes with a 24-megapixel selfie camera. This selfie camera on the Asus ROG Phone 3 comes with a 1/2.6″ sensor, an f/2.0 aperture and an 84-degree field of view.

The camera software is also customized by Asus, with features like Anti-shake, AIS and AR effects. So this will ensure that you will never have a bad time taking amazing selfies! Now that is cool, right?!

Hello boss! But what about the video?

Surprisingly, this smartphone does a great job on the video recording front as well!

The main camera can shoot video at 8k resolution at 30fps and 4K resolution, at 60fps. You also have the option to record at 4K resolution, at 120fps, which can be used to create slow-motion videos. You can record 1080p videos at 30fps, as well as 720p ones at 480fps.

But how good is the sound quality on Asus ROG Phone 3?

Asus has focused on the audio capabilities of the ROG Phone 3 really well! So let us take a look at it in detail:

3.5 mm Audio Jack

First up, the 3.5mm headphone jack. I’m glad it’s there. There are still a lot of games and other content that comes out in analog format and I appreciate being able to use my wired headphones when I want.

The earphones bundled with the smartphone are equipped with great amplifiers, which boost the audio signal from the smartphone. Itโ€™s a unique solution that could be particularly interesting in a home theater context.

Next, A 24-bit/192kHz audio output is a first for this smartphone. Itโ€™s a direct consequence of the DTS:X support in the loudspeaker. DTS:X is an extension of DTS which is able to send different audio tracks to each speaker, creating an immersive audio experience. So for an audiophile like me, this is niravana!

Speakers

But the other feature important for me is the speakers. Because there are times when you don’t feel like plugging in an earphone and block your ears completely. Right? So how does the ROG Phone 3 fare in this front? Here is my experience:

Luckily, the front-facing stereo speakers produce some of the loudest and most dynamic audio weโ€™ve ever heard from a phone. The surround sound-like effects that come from having two speakers makes gaming and watching movies an unforgettable experience.

But there is more! The external speakers are also good for hands-free calls. The bundled ROG Audio Wizard app allows users to fine-tune the audio settings to their liking.

So all in all, I feel this phone is perfect for gamers and audio buffs alike.

How About Wireless Connectivity

Next, we have the rest of the phones communication bits. You’ll get the normal Wifi, Bluetooth, GPS, NFC, and the FM radio. For the Wi-Fi, Asus is using the latest 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac with 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands.

It also has Wi-Fi Direct and Hotspot functionality. This means that you should have no trouble connecting to a network and using the internet on the go.

Okay! That is all good. But what can I do if I want to connect it to my car? I need to use other wireless connection then, right? So how do I go about doing that? Well that is when I use my Bluetooth!

Bluetooth

The ROG Phone 3 features Bluetooth 5.1. Now this version of Bluetooth has a higher bandwidth than the previous versions, which makes it perfect for watching videos, using wireless headphones, and transferring data. It is also backwards compatible with previous versions of Bluetooth, so you can use it with all of your devices.

Bluetooth is no longer limited to file transfer and can be used for wireless speakers, headsets, keyboards, mice, and more. It is also the new AptX standard, which is supposed to give a better quality of sound over Bluetooth.

Okay! But what about my mobile payments? What can I do to look cool paying money from my smartphone? Like that Apple fanboy standing in front of me flaunting his iPhone to pay the bill?

Near Field Communication (NFC)

There is NFC connectivity on the ROG Phone 3 as well. So you can use NFC pay as well!

But it does not end there. Because NFC is great for sharing data between phones and sharing links with people that donโ€™t have data on their phones as well. But if you want to transfer a lot of data, you can do so with a cable.

Radio

Moving on to the radios, we have a few that have been announced and some that haven’t. First up, is the aforementioned FM radio. This will be available in the US. It will also support GPS with GPS, GLONASS, and QZSS for Russia. This allows you to find your location, and navigation is also possible with the GPS.

Then we have BeiDou Navigation Satellite System or BDS. This is the Chinese satellite system that is slowly being adopted by more and more countries. Then we have GALILEO, which is the European system that has been adopted by more countries as well. The last one is QZSS. QZSS is the Japanese satellite system that is also slowly being adopted by more and more countries.

The Good Old USB

Finally, we have the ports. The right side has the a USB 3.1 Type-C port. This is just like the OnePlus 6T and Razer Phone 2, but it is backwards compatible with 3.0. USB-C is great because it is reversible, and it is becoming the standard for charging phones. Youโ€™ll also get an adapter for USB-C to USB-A and USB-C to HDMI. This is also the way to charge the phone. At the bottom is another USB port but this time it is USB 2.0.

What About Sensors in ROG Phone 3?

The ROG Phone 3 has a unique solution to a very common problem in modern smartphones. The ROG Phone 3 offers fingerprint scanning technology embedded directly into the display. The process works like this: the user places their finger on the screen and the smartphone then flashes an image of the user’s fingerprint, which the phone’s built-in scanner then uses to identify the user and unlock the device. In addition to this, it has the standard array of sensors such as accelerometer, gyroscope, proximity sensor and compass.

How Good Is The Battery On This Phone?

The Asus ROG Phone 3 battery at 6000mAh is the largest capacity battery in our list of best gaming phones. This helps the ROG Phone 3 to rank high in all three of our battery tests, coming in at number two in our web browsing test, number three in our video test and number four in our talk time test. While the Asus ROG Phone 3 has a massive battery, the phone is not designed to be charged wirelessly, which is disappointing considering it is one of the few features that you might have expected on a gaming phone. This does mean that the ROG Phone 3 does support Quick Charge 4.0 and USB Type-C, so you can expect to see this phone charge fast when you use the right cable.

Network Support

The Asus ROG Phone is an odd beast – a gaming phone with 5G connectivity in tow, even if it is just for show right now. The 5G version has support for the full set of sub-6GHz 5G bands, as well as a wide range of LTE bands – though some of them are not available in the US. It has a Cat.20 LTE modem, which theoretically offers speeds up to 2000Mbps downlink and 150Mbps uplink. It also supports 5G NR on its newest 5G bands, with the B version having 5G NR on bands 34 and 39 and SA support.

Conclusion

All in all, we feel that this is a great smartphone for gamers and audiophiles alike! So if you fall into any of these two categories, you should definitely check this smartphone out!