What Is An Atom? How Small Is It & What Is It Made Of?

So if you have studied science in your school, then the question What is an atom will be a basic one to ask, right? But yet here we are. Asking the very same question once again. Why?

It is because as simple as this question may seem to you, the underlying answer for it is not an easy one. Isn’t it?

But why so?

It is because an atom is something so small that we can not see it through our naked eyes. So what we cannot see, we cannot understand it easily.

What Is An Atom – Definition

But simply put,

An atom is the the smallest constituent of any matter.

What does this even mean? To understand this better,let us take a look at the following example.

Let me say I picked up a piece of graphite. Now as you know, a graphite is made up of Carbon element. So then I start breaking this graphite I picked up into smaller pieces. I will continue to break each of the smaller pieces into further smaller pieces.

So now at this point in time I will ask you this question. How far can I continue to break the graphite? What is the smallest form of graphite I can have?

Then answer for that is – I can break it down until I have only one atom of Graphite left!

So, that is what an atom is. It is the smallest particle of any matter.

But then what will happen if I continue to break the atom even further? The answer is, if you continue to break an atom, it will stop being that element.

Wait…what does that mean?

It simply means that if I break a Graphite atom further, it will stop being a Graphite element all together. It will turn into some other element!

So in other words, an atom is the smallest constituent of any element. If we try to break it any further, it stops being that element any more!

But why does an atom change into other element if broken further? To answer this, we first need to know how an atom looks like. So we will do just that!

What Is An Atom Made Up Of?

An atom, simply put is made up of 3 components:

  • Proton
  • Neutron &
  • Electron

But wait. Didn’t I just say an atom cannot be broken down any further. Then how did we get these 3 components, eh?

Yes, your question is valid. You see, I did not say an atom cannot be further broken down. But instead, what I said is that if you break it any further, it stops being that element.

Do you see the difference?

So in reality an atom can be broken down into protons, neutrons and electrons. But if you want to break it any further, you will have to start removing the total number of protons, electrons and neutrons in it.

But now, removing a few electrons or neutrons from an atom will not change the atom’s element. So if you remove even a single proton from it and you would have changed the element itself!

So this begs us to ask the next question:

What Is An Element?

An element is a substance that is made up of only one type of atom. So when you look at a Periodic Table – which lists all the elements you will find in the universe, you will find a total of 118 elements in it.

Now each of these elements differ from one another based on the number of Protons present in it. So as you can see, it is the number of protons that determine the type of element it is. And as a result, “number of Protons” in an element is so significant that it has its own tern for it – called the Atomic Number.

What Is An Atomic Number?

An atomic number is the total number of protons present in an element. It is represented by the symbol Z. So for example, Hydrogen has an atomic number of 1 (i.e. Z=1). So what it means is that an Hydrogen atom has one Proton in it!

So this calls for another question now. Take a look at the Periodic Table below:

Periodic Table
Periodic Table

Now answer this question for me:

What will happen if if I try to add one more proton into the Hydrogen atom?

As you can see in the periodic table, an Hydrogen atom has the atomic number 1. So it must be having 1 Proton in it. Now when I try to add another Proton to it, I am actually changing it’s atomic number to 2, right?

Then what is the element in the periodic table that has an atomic number of 2? Yep, you are right. It’s Helium!

So you changed a Hydrogen atom to an Helium atom by adding a proton to it! Pretty cool, eh! Feeling like God already?! 😉

So based on this, you now know that can turn an element into any other type of element by just adding or removing protons to it, right?

So then tell me this, how protons do you need to add to Hydrogen(H) atom to turn it into Gold (Au)? If you answered 78, then you are absolutely right!

So does that mean we can easily create Gold out of other elements? Unfortunately NO. This is what alchemists have been trying to do for a long time. But so far they have not succeeded in doing so! 🙁

What Is A Nucleus Of An Atom?

An atom as I told earlier is made up of Protons, Neutrons & Electrons. But how are they packed together inside an atom?

Well you see, an atom consists of a central core to it called a Nucleus. This is where Protons & Neutrons stay packed together. But on the other hand, Electrons are revolving around this nucleus at different orbit levels depending on the type of the element. So this calls for another question:

Why Electrons Revolve Around A Nucleus Of An Atom?

The answer to this is because both Electrons & Protons are electrically charged while Neutrons are neutral. An Electron is said to be negatively charged where as a proton is positively charged.

So as you know, like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. So, electrons are attracted towards the protons and try to fall into the nucleus.

On the other hand, protons which are in the nucleus tend to repel each other, but they are still together because of a force called strong nuclear force. The neutrons in the nucleus will also help the protons by being positioning themselves between two protons.

Can you see atoms through a microscope?

Err…NO, not really. But why?

That is because an atom is extremely small in size. It is so small that it measures just ten-millionth the size of a millimeter, as explained below.

What is the size of an atom?

The size of one single atom is about ten millionth the size of (1/1010) of a millimeter.

Or you can also say it as (1×10−8 cm).

Or it is sometimes even expressed as 100 picometer.

Now that is a number that is so small that we can not even perceive its size correctly. So for us to get a better scale of it, here is a little fodder to trigger your imagination.

Let us take a look at a scale ruler that we find in our geometry box. Here is how it looks like, right?

A scale ruler measuring in centimeters
A scale ruler measuring in centimeters

Now as shown in the pic above, the distance between two taller markings in this ruler is 1 cm. So then here is my question for you.

How many atoms can you fit in a straight line horizontally within this 1 cm space? Do you want to take a guess?

Well, here is your answer in the pic below:

Size of an atom visualized.
Size of an atom visualized.

So as you can see from the above image, we can stack up to 10,00,00,000 or 108 atoms in a row within a size of 1cm!

Now isn’t that something!


So this was just a basic introduction to what an atom is and how it looks like. There are many more concepts related to atom that we could not discuss here as the article started to grow too big. So I will be covering more about it in the future articles.

Learning about the fundamentals or basics of electricity is a must for someone who is trying to get into electronics using boards like Arduino or Raspberry Pi. So this article should have set you in the right direction to learn the basics of it.

Now if you still have any questions related to it, leave a comment below this article and I will try my best to answer them. Alright?

So until next time, take care and happy learning! 🙂


Arduino Portenta Technical Specification & Price

In this article, we will take a look at the technical specification of Arduino Portenta. But along with this, we will also learn about its price during its release date.

Just today, Arduino launched its new product called “Arduino Portenta” at CES 2020 show in Las Vegas. So far from what I have learnt, it is an IoT device. Which means that you can use it to connect things in your house to the internet!

But not just that! The company is also claiming that we can use Arduino Portenta even in industrial applications.

Ok, all this is fine. But why do we even need this device in the first place? To answer this question, we first need to discuss the technical details of Arduino Portenta. So let us first do that!

Arduino Portenta H7 Technical Specification

Arduino Portenta H7 Processor

The Arduino Portenta H7 is driven by the ST Microelectronics’ STM32H747XI low power processor. This processor is made up of dual ARM Cortex cores.

The first ARM core present in it is a Cortex-M7 running at 480 MHz. On the other hand, the second ARM core is made up of Cortex-M4 and running at 240 MHz. So with these two cores together, this ARM processor is able to run Arduino code, Python and Javascript code as well!

Now this is very interesting! Since it can run Javascript, many of the web developers will be able to work on it!

What OS does the Portenta H7 run?

We got to know that Portenta H7 is running on Arm’s Mbed OS! This is amazing! Being able to run an embedded operating system will mean we can make use of all the resources efficiently!

What type of connectivity does the Portenta H7 have?

Arduino mentioned that they support all the standard connectivity we can expect. So that means it has support for Bluetooth Low Energy, WiFi and LTE as well!

UPDATE On The Radio Module Of Arduino Portenta

We just got to know that the Arduino Portenta features a Murata 1DX dual WiFi 802.11 chipset. This chipset also has support for Bluetooth 5.1 BR/EDR/LE!

Arduino Portenta H7 with Technical Specification and release date
Arduino Portenta H7 IoT Module

What GPU Type Can We Find In Arduino Portenta H7?

The technical specification of the Arduino Portenta H7 mentions that it features a Chrom-ART graphical hardware accelerator.

What does the technical specification say about Timers in Arduino Portenta H7?

Alright guys. We know that in order for us to work with any time sensitive operation we need support of timers. So how does we score here? Well luckily on the timer front, the board has a total of 22 watchdogs and general purpose timers in it. So we have all the room to take its advantages!

But what about the UART ports in Portenta H7?

Ofcourse even though we have moved towards wireless connectivity, we still need good old UART ports for many reasons. So how do we fare on this front? Well the Arduino Portenta H7 strikes back once again! It is exposing a total of 4 UART Ports. And among these 4 ports, two of the UART ports have support for flow control.

How many connectors are exposed on the Arduino Portenta H7 board?

The Arduino Portenta H7 board exposes a total of 160 pin connectors. These connectors are grouped into two 80 pin sets and will expose all the peripherals present in the Portenta H7 board.

What type of USB does Arduino Portenta H7 support?

On the USB front, Arduino Portenta H7 exposes a USB Type C connector. This USB-C connector has support for host/device, displayPort out. It can operate at high speed or full speed USB protocol configuration. The Portenta H7 USB-C also supports Power delivery.

What is the operating temperature range of Arduino Portenta H7?

Arduino Portenta H7 can operate at a temperature range lying between -40 °C to +85 °C when running without the wireless module. But with the wireless module, Portenta H7 can operate in the temperature zone of  -10 °C to +55 °C.

What is the operating voltage of Arduino Portenta H7 acccording to its technical specification?

Arduino Portenta H7 works at 3.3 Volts.

What type of battery does Portenta H7 support?

The Arduino Portenta H7 runs on a Li-Po battery. This battery has an operating voltage of 3.7 Volts and a discharge rating of 7000mAh.

Does Arduino Portenta H7 support an SD Card?

Yes it does! The Portenta board has an SD card interface support. However, this SD Card interface is available only through an expansion port. So that is a bit of a bummer! 🙁

But now that we know the Arduino Portenta H7 technical specification, when will it Release?

I know I know. No matter how good the device is, we cannot take advantage of it until it gets in our hands, right? So we can understand when you are eager to know when this module is going to be released.

So from what we got to know, Arduino Portenta H7 is already made availale for beta testers. But it is going to become available for everyone by February 2020! Guys, that means we are just a month away from getting hold of it in our hands!

Now that we went through it’s technical specification, What will be the price of Arduino Portenta H7?

Cool! So now that we know we can get hold of Portenta by next month, our next question is obviously this.

How much it is going to cost?

Unfortunately at this point in time, I could not find an answer (Look for update at the end of this article for pricing information) for this. So I will continue to look out for this information. Once I find it, I will revisit this article and update it with the latest price. But until then, I can only leave you guessing about it.

But on the other hand, if you have any idea about it, let me know in the comments below. And not just that, if you have any other information about Portenta H7 in general that I have missed here, do let me know. In this way, I can update this article in the future for others to benefit out of it.

So there you have it. I have shared all the information I had about Arduino Portenta H7 here. While for me this device is something I am eagerly looking forward to, I wish it had a better name. Somehow for me, the name Portenta H7 is becoming difficult to remember. But may be it is just me I guess.

So any case, I will end this article at this point. So see you guys again in the next article. Until then, take care! 🙂

Latest Update On Arduino Portenta Price

We just got to know that Arduino Portenta will cost USD 99.90 + Tax.

So the cost of Arduino Portenta in the US will be $100 + taxes

The cost of Arduino Portenta in the UK will be around GBP 77 + taxes

The cost of Arduino Portenta in the European countries will be around 90 + taxes Euros

And finally the cost of Arduino Portenta in India will be around Rs.7200 + taxes